Home » Hypoglycemia » Info for hypoglycemics » Research Evidence For Hypoglycemia – Part 2 (C-F)

Research Evidence For Hypoglycemia – Part 2 (C-F)

By Jurriaan Plesman, BA(Psych), Post Grad Dip Clin Nutr

See also  INDEX of Specific Topics and Research and  References for Mood Disorders and Nutrition

Candidiasis (Notes),  Cancer & sugar,  Cannabidiol  , Carnitine in red meat & atherosclerosis,Celiac DiseasesCholesterol & Behaviour,  Cholesterol & heart disease, Chromium, Chronic pain, Cinnamon, Circadian Cycle and BehaviourClinical Nutrition, Coconut oil, Coeliac disease and Down’s Syndrome,  Coenzyme Q10, Copper, Cortisol, Critique of psychiatryCurcumin(Turmeric), Death by Medicine by Gary Null, DelusionsDementia, Simple test for,   Dementia & High Blood SugarDementhia & Metformin,  Depression & IR, Depression & Fishoil, Depression, Incidence of,  Depression & GenesDepression related to Insulin Resistance (Some studies)Depression & nutrition, Depression & obesity, Diabetes Type I, Diabetes, Glucose Control,  Diabetes & FruitsDiabetes & Metformin,  Diabetic gene, Diabetic retinopathy, Digestive enzymes, Dream Recall dependent on Vit B6,  DogsDrug addiction & addicts, 9 months to recover from addiction, Drug addiction recovery rate, Drug addiction & dopamine,  Drug companies, Recovery rate of alcoholics, Drug addiction & Addicts, Drug/Herb interactions,,  drugs & violence, Energy Drinks & Heart,  Exercise, Fenugreek, Fertility and Hypoglycemia,  Fish better than Fishoil, Flu Epidemic, Nutrition against,  Food addiction, Free Radicals & Insulin Resistance, Fruits for Diabetes,

See also:


 

CANCER: Sugar feeds cancer cells. See Mercola.com “When a purified avocado extract called mannoheptulose was added to a number of tumor cells, for testing in vitro by researchers in the Department of Biochemistry at Oxford University in Britain, they found it inhibited tumor cell glucose uptake by 25 to 75 percent, and it inhibited the enzyme glucokinase responsible for glycolysis. It also inhibited the growth rate of the cultured tumor cell lines.” More studies relating to ngSugar Feeds Cancer. Colorectal Cancer & Sugary Drinks.

CANNABIDIOL: also known as CBD, is a cannabinoid found in Cannabis (marijuana). It is a major constituent of the plant, representing up to 40% in its extracts. It has been produced as a drug called Sativex.Has been used as an aniti-pychotic in treating schizophrenia, multiple sclerosis, and also as anti-tumor agents in human breast cancer. Wikipedia

CHILDREN & HYPERGLYCEMIA: “Stress hyperglycemia is a frequent clinical occurrence in a pediatric emergency department. It does not appear to be associated with a particular diagnostic category but is significantly associated with severity of illness as measured by elevated temperature, hospital admission, and hydration status.” Bhisitkul DM, et als. 1994,

CHOLESTEROL & HEART ATTACKS: “Until now, large studies of cholesterol-lowering drugs have shown that they can reduce deaths from heart attacks but not the overall death rate. People who lowered their cholesterol levels with drugs died at higher rates of other causes, like cancer or violence or suicide. Source“. Low cholesterol concentrations were associated with increased risk of suicide. BMJ 1996;313:649-651. Cholesterol is a controversial issue among many natural health practitioners. Some authors have claimed that pharmaceutical companies have lowered the “acceptable risks” of cholesterol levels thereby “increasing the number of people it wants to put on cholesterol lowering drugs”, making it a phony issue. Mary Enig PhD . Damaged cells in arteries need cholesterol for repair (multiplication) of cells, hence high cholesterol levels. Statin drugs can lead to depletion of Coenzyme Q10 , which can lead to heart failure, aggression and depression Source. Low cholesterol levels associated with violent criminal offences PMID: 12056583 “Most statins’ adverse effects, including the musculoskeletal (including rhabsomyolysis) and gastrointestinal system are dose related.”Mercola. IOWs, the lower the dose the less harmful the medication without sacrificing the beneficial effects. Statins inhibit HMG Coenzyme A reductase causing your liver to manufacture cholesterol when it is stimulated by high insulin levels. “High insulin levels are one of the primary drivers for raising cholesterol.” This is a reason why a low sugar diet will help lower cholesterol. Although omega-3 fatty acids in fishoil will not lower cholesterol levels it will reduce the risk of of heart attack. Mercola. “CONCLUSIONS: The Warfarin/Aspirin Study in Heart failure (WASH) provides no evidence that aspirin is effective or safe in patients with heart failure. The benefits of warfarin for patients with heart failure in sinus rhythm have not been established. Antithrombotic therapy in patients with heart failure is not evidence based but commonly contributes to polypharmacy.” Am Heart J. 2004 Jul;148(1):157-64. “About 80 percent of total body cholesterol is manufactured in the liver, while 20 percent comes from dietary sources” Balch, 326. See also: Cholesterol Myth by Dr Robert Buist —> page 6 and Mercola on Crestor “Conclusion This literature-based meta-analysis did notfind evidence for the benefit of statin therapy on all-causemortality in a high-risk primary prevention set-up.”Kausik K. Ray et als. June 2010

For more studies by Mercola See also Natural Cholesterol Lowering Remedies.

See also video about cholesterol by Dr Vincent Bellonzi

See also: Cholesterol lowering drugs can be dangerous and discuss with your doctor.

Understanding the cholesterol myth by Mercola. For more ramifications research Index to Specific Topics for Statins, Dementia, Cataracts, Depression

The Oiling of America by Mary G. Enig PhD and Sally Fallon video showing how the food industry tricked us into lowering our cholesterol levels.

“Cholesterol drugs make you more vulnerable to bacterial infections such as e. coli and salmonella — a recent study shows that the statin drug simvastatin (sold under the names Zocor and Simvacor, Pravachol, Mevacor, Lipitor, Crestor), which the government advocates as a means of lowering cholesterol levels, actually weakens your immune system”. Source

Always discuss changing your medications with your doctor!

In the 21st Century we may see a totally new way of treating cardiovascular diseases with sulphur, See:  Sulphur and Cardiovascular Disease Interview of Dr Stephanie Seneff by Dr Joseph Mercola.

CHOLESTEROL AFFECTS BRAIN FUNCTION: Index to Specific Topics

CHROMIUM: “The insulin receptor, the structure on the surfaces of your cells that actually become resistant to insulin, requires chromium to function properly. Deficiency of chromium is rampant – it affects 90% of the American population – because a diet high in starch and sugar puts a heavy demand on the insulin system to handle the incoming carbohydrate load, and that demand depletes chromium.” Diabetes Breakthrough,

“Eight patients with refractory mood disorders received chromium supplements and described dramatic improvements in their symptoms and functioning. The putative antidepressant effects of chromium could be accounted for by enhancement of insulin utilization and related increases in tryptophan availability in the central nervous system, and/or by chromium’s effects on norepinephrine release” McLeod MN et al, 2000,

” Preliminary observations suggest that chromium may potentiate antidepressant pharmacotherapy for dysthymic disorder. Controlled studies are indicated to test the validity of these initial observations.” McLeod MN, et als. 1999,

Chromium deficiency associated with Anxiety, Fatigue, Glucose Intolerance, Growth Impairment, Hypercholesterolemia AND Chromium toxicity associated with dermatitis, GI ulcers, Kidney impairment, Liver impairment, Werbach 1991, 336

Sugar consumption causes urinary chromium excretion, Werbach 1991, 313,

Chromium Reasonable Dietary Levels (RDL) 50-200µg, pharmacological dosage range 200-300µg, Werbach 1991, 286

Chromium enriched Brewer’s yeast may improve glucose tolerance and lipid metabolism. Offenbacher EG 1980,

The insulin-enhancing factor in Brewer’s yeast was found to have little chromium, and the GTF activity was isolated in cationic and anionic small amino acid or peptide-like molecules. Davies DM et al. 1985,

Health benefits of chromium that can improve insulin resistance.

CHRONIC PAIN: When suffering from chronic pain as in fibromyalgia, avoid certain foods in chronic pain; such as sugar, preservatives in foods, caffeine, nightshade vegetable like tomatoes, potatoes, eggplant, trans-fatty acids (fried foods, use omega-3 fatty acids instead), yeast, pasteurized dairy, cut down on carbs, avoid aspartame, avoid additives such as monosodium glutamate (MSG), avoid junk food. Mercola

CINNAMON: “The results of this study demonstrate that intake of 1, 3, or 6 g of cinnamon per day reduces serum glucose, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, and total cholesterol in people with type 2 diabetes and suggest that the inclusion of cinnamon in the diet of people with type 2 diabetes will reduce risk factors associated with diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.” Khan A et als, 2003, Anderson RA et als. 2004

Studies on how Cinnamon improves Insulin Resistance here.

Circadian cycle and lighting affects behaviour and sleeping pattern. See: Anna Wirz-Justice PhD See also Lighting and behaviour

CLINICAL NUTRITION: Dr Ian Brighthope’s article about Nutritional medicine “Nutritional Medicine – Its presence and power” in Hypo Newsletter March 1999 go to page 4

For any queries about clinical nutrition, diseases, conditions, nutrient supplements, go to Herbs2000 and choose one of the indexes.

Another useful web site is mercola.com

COCONUT OIL:

* Help you lose weight, or maintain your already good weight see also here.

* Reduce the risk of heart disease

* Lower your cholesterol

* Improve conditions in those with diabetes and chronic fatigue

* Improve Crohn’s, IBS, and other digestive disorders

* Prevent other disease and routine illness with its powerful antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal agents

* Increase metabolism and promotes healthy thyroid function

* Boost your daily energy

* Rejuvenate your skin and prevent wrinkles

See Mercola.

COELIAC DISEASE AND DOWN’S SYNDROME: “The outcome. to say the least, has been staggering. I have to date tested 18 Down’s syndrome children – and 17 of them have the pathology associated with coeliac disease”  Dr Chris Reading See also: Celiac Disease & Lymphoma.

COENZYME Q10: also known as Ubiquinone. “The conversion of energy from carbohydrates and fats to adenosine triposphate (ATP), the form of energy used by cells, requires the presence of coenzyme Q in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Coenzyme Q10 is synthesized in most human tissues. The biosynthesis of coenzyme Q10 requires synthesis of the benzoquinone structure from either tyrosine or phenylalanine.

“Therapeutic use of statins, including simvastatin (Zocor), pravastatin (Pravachol), lovastatin (Mevacor, Altocor), and atorvastatin (Lipitor), has been shown to decrease blood plasma or serum levels of coenzyme Q10(83-91).” Linus Pauling Institute

The first step in benzoquinone biosynthesis (the conversion of tyrosine to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid) requires vitamin B6 in the form of pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (P-5-P). Thus, adequate vitamin B6 nutrition is essential for coenzyme Q10 biosynthesis. A pilot study in 29 patients and healthy volunteers found significant positive correlations between blood levels of coenzyme Q10 and measures of vitamin B6 nutritional status (6)“. Linus Paulng Institute

“The treatment was well tolerated and did not interfere with glycemic control, therefore CoQ10 may be used as adjunctive therapy in patients with associated cardiovascular diseases.” Eriksson JG, et al.

“The lipophilic antioxidant and mitochondrial respiratory chain redox coupler, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), has the potential to improve energy production in mitochondria by bypassing defective components in the respiratory chain as well as by reducing the effects of oxidative stress. We hypothesized that CoQ10 pretreatment prior to stress could improve the recovery of the myocardium after stress.” Rosenfeldt FL, etals. 2002,

“OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess effects of dietary supplementation with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) on blood pressure and glycaemic control in subjects with type 2 diabetes, and to consider oxidative stress as a potential mechanism for any effects. These results show that CoQ supplementation may improve blood pressure and long-term glycaemic control in subjects with type 2 diabetes, but these improvements were not associated with reduced oxidative stress, as assessed by F2-isoprostanes. SPONSORSHIP: This study was supported by a grant from the NH&MRC, Australia.” Hodgson JM, et als. 2002, CoQ10 may help in Parkinson Disease. Linus Pauling Institute.

For sources of Coenzyme Q10. See also Natural Cholesterol Lowering Remedies

COPPER: Zinc levels are related to copper levels and should be in balance. A high ratio of copper/zinc may cause zinc deficiency and could lead to violent behaviour. Negroes have higher copper levels than whites. Copper is needed in the production of melanin skin pigmentation. Pfeiffer, CC, 216, and in the production of biological energy (ATP). Copper deficiency can lead to problems in the synthesis of collagen and red blood cells, such as hemoglobin formation leading to anemia (Source: Linus Paul Institute). Question: Could excess copper lead to zinc deficiency and vulnerability to alcohol metabolism?

“The highest concentration of copper is found in the brain and liver. Copper is found in all other tissues in varying amounts, and about 50 percent of the total copper content of the body is found in the bones and muscles. It is essential in the production of collagen and the neurotransmitter noradrenaline. It plays a role in the production of the skin pigment melanin by converting the amino acid tyrosine. It is involved in production of hemoglobin. Copper influences iron absorption and mobilization from the liver and other tissue stores. Absorption of the mineral is increased by acids and inhibited by calcium (Kirschmann, 1996). Wearing copper bracelets is a long-term folk remedy for arthritis. This remains a controversial topic. See here.

Elevated hair copper levels may be related to criminal behaviour, Werbach 1991, 7

Superoxide dismutase (SOD) a zinc and copper or manganese containing enzyme which reacts with superoxide radicals to convert them to less dangerous. It is the fifth most common protein in the human body. All organsims not killed by air contain SOD. Intracellular cytoplasmic SOD contains Zinc & Copper, mitochondrial SOD contains zinc & manganese. Superoxide radicals is implicated in arthritis and cataract formation. Pearson 1982, 803.

“Elevated levels (often due to contaminated drinking water) can be toxic, causing profound mental and physical fatigue, poor memory, severe depression and insomnia. Werbach 1991, 273,

CORTISOL:The connection between high cortisol levels due to psychological stress and depression has been explained in the article. The Serotonin Connection.

“Social adversity may be a risk factor for depression, by increasing stress induced cortisol secretion, which impairs serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission.” Strickland PL et als 2002

Chronic fatigue syndrome patients display cortisol hyposecretion in saliva as well as plasma compared to patients with depression and healthy controls. Strickland PL 1998 See also: Chrousos GP 2000 and (1), (2)

“Recent evidence suggests that increased cortisol secretion, altered cortisol metabolism, and/or increased tissue sensitivity to cortisol may link insulin resistance, hypertension, and obesity. In summary, in patients with glucose intolerance, cortisol secretion, although normal, is inappropriately high given enhanced central and peripheral sensitivity to glucocorticoids.” Andrews RC, et als. 2002,

“Insulin resistance has been proposed as a mediator of the association between risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the population. The clinical syndrome of glucocorticoid excess

(Cushing’s syndrome) is associated with glucose intolerance, obesity and hypertension. By opposing the actions of insulin, glucocorticoids could contribute to insulin resistance and its association with other cardiovascular risk factors.” Andrews RC, Walker BR, 1999,

CURCUMIN (TURMERIC): “Administration of turmeric or Curcumin to diabetic rats reduced the blood sugar” Arun N, Nalini N. 2002, Antitumor agent. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients June 2001

Dementia:   High Blood Sugar Levels Tied to Small Increases in Dementia Risk 08/07/2013 05:00 PM EDT Elevated blood glucose may harm the brain, even in people without diabetes, researchers say.

Dementia in old age linked to anemia: Seniors with anemia at baseline had a 64% higher likelihood of incident dementia during 11 years of follow-up, Kristine Yaffe, MD, of the University of California San Francisco and the VA Medical Center there, and colleagues found. Medpage 31 Jul 2013

DELUSIONS: It is a disturbing to see that many discussion forums unquestionably accept the assumption that “mental illness” is – as the definition literally says – an “illness of the mind”. Most forum members accept the multi-factorial nature of “mental illness”, but when it comes to biochemical aspects of “mental illness” barricades are set up to resist any arguments that would support the notion that “mental illness” is in fact mainly due to a biochemical imbalance affecting cognition. Yet, amazingly enough, most of these boards recognize that anti-depressant medications – in recognition of the physical nature of the illness – are a normal part and parcel of “psychological”  treatment. These conflicting concepts have been further discussed in:

Psychological Projection and Hypoglycemia

and

Mental Illness a Disease of Delusions

DEPRESSION and INSULIN RESISTANCE: Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine showing 82 studies that link hypoglycemia (insulin resistance) with depression…. here.

Depressive patients showed decreased glucose tolerance. Okamura F et al, 1999. and Okamura et als 2000,

Glass of Wine a Day May Ward Off Depression, Study Suggests

08/30/2013 12:00 PM EDT But, moderate drinking might also just be sign of normal social life, researchers add

“A positive association was found between depressive disorder and insulin resistance in this population-based sample of young adult men and women (1732 participants). The association seemed to be mediated partially by waist circumference.” PMID20185745

“Depressed patients demonstrated significantly higher basal glucose levels, greater cumulative glucose responses after the GTT, and larger cumulative insulin responses after the GTT than control subjects.” Winokur A et als. (1988)

“One of the predictive factors of treatment-resistant depression is the syndrome of relative insulin resistance” Bech P, et als. 1999,

“Since insulin resistance is positively associated with the development of diabetes, we hypothesised—given that disturbed glucoregulatory functions behind the development of diabetes might be associated with pathophysiological changes in depression—that insulin resistance should be positively correlated with depressive symptoms.” Timonen M, (2005) and Timonen et als (2005)

“Research has shown that depression is commonly associated with diabetes. People who have both diabetes and depression tend to have more severe symptoms of both diseases, higher rates of work disability and use more medical services than those who only have diabetes alone.” Science Update, 1 March 2010

“Stress is commonly associated with a variety of psychiatric conditions, including major depression, and with chronic medical conditions, including diabetes and insulin resistance.” Wolkowitz OM, et als. 2001,

“Insulin resistance has been associated with people diagnosed with depression. Conversely, it has also been documented that diabetics have an increased risk of depression. Evidence suggests that insulin activity plays a role in serotonergic activity by increasing the influx of tryptophan into the brain. This increased influx of tryptophan has been shown to result in an increase in serotonin synthesis. In accordance with the serotonin theory of depression, it may be possible to treat depression by increasing insulin activity. The antioxidant alpha lipoic acid has been shown to increase insulin sensitivity and is used to treat people with diabetes. Therefore, the nutrient alpha lipoic acid should be clinically tested as an adjunct treatment for depression.” Salazar MR., 2000,

“An association between affective disorders and alterations in glucose utilization has been recognized. The authors administered a 5-hour oral glucose tolerance test (GTT) to 28 depressed patients and 21 healthy volunteer control subjects and measured serum glucose as well as plasma insulin and glucagon responses. Depressed patients demonstrated significantly higher basal glucose levels, greater cumulative glucose responses after the GTT, and larger cumulative insulin responses after the GTT than control subjects. Values for cumulative glucagon did not significantly differ between groups. These findings indicate the presence of a functional state of insulin resistance during major depressive illness and suggest the presence of a more generalized biological disturbance in some depressed patients.” Winokur A, et als. 1988,

“Glucose utilization, serum insulin, human growth hormone, and free fatty acids were studied in 18 unipolar depressed patients and 14 normal controls, using the intravenous glucose tolerance test. [But] endogenous depression was associated with lowered glucose utilization rate with insulin resistance.” Wright JH, et als. 1978,

“Depression is often associated with insulin resistance, owing to cortisol overproduction; conversely, many studies suggest that diabetics are at increased risk for depression. Recent evidence indicates that insulin is transported through the blood-brain barrier and influences brain function via widely distributed insulin receptors on neurons. These receptors are particularly dense on catecholaminergic synaptic terminals, and, while effects are variable dependent on brain region, several studies indicate that insulin promotes central catecholaminergic activity, perhaps by inhibiting synaptic re-uptake of norepinephrine. This may rationalize anecdotal reports of improved mood in clinical depressives and diabetics receiving the insulin-sensitizing nutrient chromium picolinate. This nutrient, perhaps in conjunction with other insulin-sensitizing measures such as low-fat diet and aerobic exercise training (already shown to be beneficial in depression), should be tested as an adjuvant for the treatment and secondary prevention of depression” McCarty MF. 1994,

Psychological stress may lead to increased cortisol levels, interfering with serotonin synthesis causing endogenous depression. Strickland PL et als 2002 .

“For the six countries with available data for the primary analysis, there was a highly significant correlation between sugar consumption and the annual rate of depression (Pearson correlation 0.948, P=0.004). Naturally, a correlation does not necessarily imply etiology.” Westover AN, et al. 2002,

Both folate and vitamin B12 deficiency may cause similar neurologic and psychiatric disturbances including depression, dementia. These nutrients are required in the the production of SAM-e, and anti-depressant substance present in every cell of the body. Bottiglieri T, 1996 Coppen A et al. (2005) Related Articles

Most prevalent health conditions in order of frequency were: depression, allergies, low back pain, arthritis, cardiovascular disease and poor digestion. Most deficient minerals were chromium, magnesium, zinc and calcium. Alcoholism, drug abuse, criminal activities Campbell JD 2001

Obese subjects with psychiatric manifestations ranging from those of melancholic depression to anxiety with perception of ‘uncontrollable’ stress, frequently have mild hypercortisolism, while carefully screened obese subjects with no such manifestations are eucortisolemic. The former may have stress-induced glucocorticoid-mediated visceral obesity and metabolic syndrome manifestations, Chrousos GP 2000

Noradrenergic and serotonergic abnormalities have long been suspected in patients with major depression. Hypersecretion of cortisol as well as the presence of cortisol receptors in the brain is suggested as the pathway for monoamine change. Dinan TG 1996

Preliminary observations suggest that chromium may potentiate antidepressant pharmacotherapy for dysthymic disorder. Controlled studies are indicated to test the validity of these initial observations. McLeod MN 1999

Negative finding in a study supplementing elderly people with chromium with stable impaired glucose intolerance. Uusitupa MI, 1992,.

Some epidemiological, experimental and clinical data favour the hypothesis that polyunsaturated fatty acids could play a role in the pathogenesis and/or the treatment of depression. Colin A, 2003,

“We investigated relationships between severity of depression and levels and ratios of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. We suggest, however, that our findings provide a basis for studying the effect of the nutritional supplementation of depressed subjects, aimed at reducing the AA/EPA ratio in tissues and severity of depression.” Adams PB et als 1996,

“Recently, it was hypothesised that a decreased consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially omega-3 fatty acids, may be a risk factor for depression and suicide. Currently, we do not have sufficient evidence that cholesterol-lowering therapies increase the risk factor for suicide” Brunner J et als, 2002, But see a study showing that low cholesterol concentrations were associated with increased risk of suicide. BMJ 1996;313:649-651

Depression may be caused by frequent consumption of caffeine or sucrose (sugar). Possible deficiencies: biotin, folic acid, pyridoxine (B6), riboflavin, thiamine, vitamin B12 or vitamin C, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium or potassium. Or excess magnesium, vanadium, Look for food sensitivities. Nutritional supplements; lithium, rubidium, phenylalanine or tyrosine (nutritional precursors to norepinephrine). S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine (SAMe), Hypericin in St John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum). Werbach, 1991, 123,

“Hypercortisolemic depressed patients suffer from resistance to insulin and increased visceral fat. The fact that hypercortisolemia reverses depression-related fat loss, particularly in the visceral area, might partially explain why major depression can be considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disorders.” Weber-Hamann B, et als. 2002,

“A high association between type 2 diabetes mellitus and depressive illness has been reported. Insulin resistance during depressive illness might contribute to the linkage between depression and type 2 diabetes.” Chiba M, et als. 2000,

“Commons [triggers] for Depression and Fatigue; Sugar, Honey and glucose, Yeasted foods. G Samra, The Allergy Connection, 91.

Depression can lead to criminal offences such as shoplifting.

Elevated copper levels can lead to depression and violence.

Depression may be due to thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency, a coenzyme that converts pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and may be responsible for elevated lactate, associated with anxiety. Werbach 1991, 52

Self-harming is associated with depression.

There is a significant association between Depression and Insulin Resistance. See for more here and here.

Conventional treatment of depression centering around medications and/or psychotherapy show disappointing results. See below

DEPRESSION AND FISH OIL: Studies showing the beneficial effects of supplementation of fish oil (eicosapentaenoic acid EPA) in the treatment of depression. Google Scholar Search and general Google Search.

DEPRESSION AND GENES:

“Researchers funded by the National Institutes of Health have found a mutation in the human serotonin transporter gene, hSERT, in unrelated families with OCD. A second variant in the same gene of some patients with this mutation suggests a genetic “double hit,” resulting in greater biochemical effects and more severe symptoms. Among the 10 leading causes of disability worldwide, OCD is a mental illness characterized by repetitive unwanted thoughts and behaviors” NIH Press Office

“Gene More Than Doubles Risk Of Depression Following Life Stresses

Among people who had inherited two copies of the stress-sensitive short version of the serotonin transporter gene (s/s), 43 percent developed depression following four stressful life events in their early twenties, compared to 17 percent among people with two copies of the stress-protective long version (l/l). About 17 percent of the 847 subjects carried two copies of the short version, 31 percent two copies of the long version, and 51 percent one copy of each version. (Source: Avshalom Caspi,Ph.D., University of Wisconsin)” Avshalom Caspi and PubMed Study.

Another study found that one gene called MKP-1 was increased more than twofold in the brain tissues of depressed individuals. PsychCentral October 2010

DEPRESSION AND NUTRITION: For scholarly articles see 24 pages of abstracts at: “Depression and Nutrition” —>See also Pubmed and Google Scholar

DEPRESSION AND OBESITY: See: OBESITY

Diabetes Drug May Protect the Brain

07/15/2013 09:00 AM EDT

Study found patients taking metformin were 20 percent less likely to develop dementia. Source: HealthDay

DIABETES TYPE I: and nutrients.   Could Dietary Tweaks Ease Type 1 Diabetes?

08/02/2013 02:00 PM EDT Foods rich in amino and fatty acids may help preserve insulin production, study suggests

DIABETIC GENE is responsible for the tendency for Hypoglycemia and diabetes to run in families. If mental illness is closely associated with insulin resistance then it could also theoretically account for the genetic influence on mental illnesses such as alcoholism, schizophrenia, depression, anxieties.

One gene has been found on he short arm of chromosome 11. “A significant increase has been demonstrated in the frequency of the UU allele in NIDDM compared with IDDM patients, and non-diabetic carriers of UU. The UU allele shows a delayed insulin response to oral glucose and reduced glucose tolerance with age.” Macleod, J (Ed) 459. See also Holden RJ, Mooney PA, Newman JC. Schizophrenia: an extended etiological explanation. Med Hypotheses. 1994 Feb; 42(2):115-23. Review, which suggests a diabetic gene in schizophrenics.

The question of a diabetic gene may be more complex; Genetic of Diabetics ADA.

For a popular book by psychiatrist Dr Chris Reading et al. on the influence of one’s family tree on mental illness

DIABETIC RETINOPATHY: Administration of Ginkgo biloba extract may protect against diabetic retinopathy. Doly M 1986, Doly M, 1992, Droy-Lefaix MT, 1991,

The herb Bilberry may improve condition.

“Thirty-one patients with various types of retinopathy (diabetic retinopathy n=20, retinitis pigmentosa n=5, macular degeneration n=4, hemorrhagic retinopathy due to anticoagulant therapy) were investigated with regard to the effect of anthocyanosides (found in Vaccinium myrtillus Bilberry extract standardized for an anthocyanidin content of 25% at a dose of 160 mg to 480 mg daily) on the retinal vessels. All patients improved, especially in patients with diabetic retinopathy, a positive influence on the permeability and tendency to hemorrhage was observed. The importance of internal treatment of the primary disease is pointed out.” Sharrer A et al. 1981, and Werbach, 1994, 138-9,

“In experimental and clinical studies, Lipoic acid (LA) markedly reduced the symptoms of diabetic pathologies, including cataract formation, vascular damage, and polyneuropathy. To develop a better understanding of the preventative and therapeutic potentials of LA, much of the current interest is focused on elucidating its molecular mechanisms in redox dependent gene expression.” Packer L, et als. 2001,

“Lipoic Acid has been used in Germany for over 30 years for the treatment of diabetes-induced neuropathy.” Evans Jl et al. 2000, For treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy see Herbs2000.

DIGESTIVE ENZYMES: “Hypo- and achlorhydria were found in 19.2 per cent of the patients and hyperchlorhydria in 15.4 per cent” [in a group of 26 diabetic patients]. Hypoglycemics should consider digestive enzymes [my own]. Dinkov I, et als. 1977,

DRUG ADDICTION & ADDICTS: “The results indicate that substance abusers with high levels of self-reported antisocial personality and aggressive behavior have altered neuroendocrine responses to glucose challenge, although there was no evidence of hypoglycemia.” Fishbein DH et als. 1992, Fishbein at als 1989,

“These data further support the hypothesis of altered serotonergic activity in aggressive and impulsive behaviors in substance abusers.” Fishbein DH, Lozovsky D, et al 1989,

“Kathleen DesMaisons , M.Ed., President of Radiant Recovery in Burlington, California, believes that many addicted people have an actual flaw in the way they process sugar and carbohydrates. This flaw in metabolization causes an addict to respond to sugar as if it were an alcohol and to white flour products as if it were sugar. She explains “Genetically, these people have biochemically sensitive bodies which invite chemical imbalance.Substances like sugar, by creating insulin and rapidly penetrating the cell wall, actually alter the permeability of the cell””. Strohecker 486,

“Dr Chaitow points to the link between brain chemistry and food addictions. Serotonin (another neurotransmitter) is a calming, analgesic-like substance which is secreted in response to carbohydrate and sugar consumption. “Sugar addiction” she says, “may be a misguided attempt to replenish serotonin in the system.”

Drug Addiction Recovery: May take nine months.

It may take up to a year (depending on each individual case) to fully recover from drug addiction. This is because it may take up to a year to repair the damage done to receptors for neurotransmitters. A high protein diet can speed up the repair. See Dr Nora Volkow

In its report it referred to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; National Institute on Drug Abuse’s 1988 report that indicated “97% of drug addicts become re-addicted within five years after treatment and 82% of alcoholics treated for alcoholism remain abstinent for less than six months” (Baldwin Research Project of 1990, © Gerald J. Brown, 1991). Baldwin Research Instiute 1991

“The main finding was that, in methamphetamine abusers who were able to stay drug-free for at least 9 months, dopamine transporter levels showed significant improvement, approaching the level observed in control subjects. In abusers studied within 6 and after 9 months, the longer the period between the first and second evaluation, the larger the increase in dopamine transporter levels. Cognitive and motor function showed a trend toward improvement on some tests, but these changes were not statistically significant.” Brookhaven National Laboratory Dec. 2001,

“The concentrations of testosterone in the plasma of 102 heroin addicts assigned to a Methadone Program were measured and compared with the values of 29 male healthy students as controls. Plasma testosterone levels were found to be significantly decreased in heroin addicts as compared to controls.” Friedrich G et als. 1990,

“These results demonstrate that heroin users have impaired insulin secretion to oral glucose but not to arginine and suggest that: the impaired insulin secretion in heroin addicts is not dependent on beta-cell exhaustion, and a selective inhibition of glucose-induced insulin secretion is operative in these subjects, as it happens in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.” Passariello N, et als. 1986,

“In the basal state, the heroin addicts had markedly reduced insulin responses to intravenous glucose and low glucose disappearance rates (p less than 0.01 vs controls). Hypoglycemic values were found in all addicts at the end of the test during salicylate infusion. Endomethacin pretreatment in five additional addicts also caused normalization of the impaired insulin responses to the intravenous glucose challenge and restored to normal the reduced glucose disappearance rate.” Giugliano D, et als, 1987,

“Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed on 16 addicts and 16 control subjects. A flat delayed glucose response was demonstrated, with hyperinsulinaemia, elevated plasma growth hormone and normal plasma cortisol in heroin addicts compared with control subjects.” Ghodse AH 1977,

“From the results obtained, it appears that in heroin addicts the glycemic response to the glucose load shows a delayed peak time. The insulin curves show increased insulin peaks, delayed peak time and prolonged hyperinsulinemia.” Brambilla F, et als. 1976,

“In the present study, 72% of the heroin addicts who sought treatment demonstrated reduced adrenal cortisol reserve. Effective immune and stress responses are dependent on adrenal cortisol reserve. This finding provides an explanation for the heroin addict’s vulnerability to AIDS and other infectious diseases.” Tennant F, et als, 1991,

“Heroin addiction seems to produce a beta-cell failure and contemporaneously a state of hyperinsulinaemia. We conclude that chronic heroin addiction may produce a change in the rate of hepatic extraction of insulin.” Zandomeneghi R et als. 1988,

“Heroin use was consistently associated with low plasma testosterone levels in narcotic addicts. Heroin addicts maintained on high dosage methadone (80-150 mg/day) also had depressed testosterone levels. Patients on low dosage methadone maintenance (10-60 mg/day) had testosterone levels which were not significantly different from normal adult male controls. An inverse relationship between methadone dosage and plasma testosterone occurred during methadone detoxification.” Mendelson JH et als. 1975,

Heroin addicts show that they have abnormal sexual hormones, which can contribute to infertility. Cicero TJ, et als. 1975, Rasheed A, Tareen IA 1995,

Drug addicts have high copper levels. “The result of the study show that in the examined group [of drug addicts], copper serum concentrations (1.35 mg/L) upon admission to the clinic were higher than in the control group (1.11 mg/L) but decreased during hospitalization (1.18 mg/L).” Piekoszewski W, et als. 2000,

” Copper and bromine showed a significant rise in whole blood (male) (22 and 32%, respectively), while zinc, iron, manganese, calcium, sulfur phosphorus, potassium, and chlorine showed a significant drop (49, 8, 25, 34, 21, 51, 61, and 72%, respectively) in proportion to the period of heroin intake (6 yr) and in comparison with the control group.” Elnimr T, et als. 1996,

Drug Addiction & Dopamine:

Dr. Nora Volkow, Brookhaven’s Associate Laboratory Director for Life Sciences and the lead author of the study, commented, “We know from past studies that drug addicts and alcoholics have fewer dopamine receptors than people who are not addicted to drugs or alcohol. In our current research, subjects who were not drug abusers and reported the effect of the stimulant as pleasant – as most cocaine abusers do – had dopamine levels similar to those in cocaine abusers. Thus, the hypothesis that people with fewer dopamine receptors may take drugs to activate these pleasure circuits may be one of the factors that predisposes a person to drug abuse. Other biological as well as genetic and environmental factors are likely to contribute to the susceptibility to drug abuse and addiction.” Brookhaven Lab. See also: Dr Nora Volkow.

DRUG COMPANIES: The influence of drug companies on governments, their commercial activities see:

Look at Mercola of how corruption influence the actions of pharmaceuticals companies.

How Drug Companies control the Nutritional Supplements Industry.

—> Drug Companies are a Major Cause of Treatment-Resistant Depression By Jurriaan Plesman

DRUG/HERB Interactions

DRUGS & VIOLENCE: “Positive drug toxicology was present in over half of all firearm death victims during this time. Cocaine, cannabis, opiates, and alcohol accounted for almost all of these deaths with drug-positive toxicology.”

Galea S, et als. 2002, see Violence

Energy Drinks may put Heart at Risk: Energy drinks may raise blood pressure and interfere with the heart’s electrical system, increasing the risk of sudden cardiac death, a meta-analysis found. Medpage 22 March 2013

EXERCISE can reduce a prediabetic (hypoglycemic) condition. Duncan GE et als 2003,

Exercise and depression,

“In animal studies conducted elsewhere, exercise has been found to increase dopamine release and to raise the number of dopamine receptors,” in a Science Daily article.

FENUGREEK(Trigonella foenum graecum) 100 gm defatted fenugreek seed powder for 10 days to type I insulin dependent diabetics reduced fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, LDL and VLDL, improved the glucose tolerance test and halved 24-h urinary glucose excretion Sharma 1990 , Madar Z et al (1988),

Fertility & Insulin Resistance: Dr. Gordon Kuttner, a reproductive endocrinologist, notes at InfertilitySpecialist.com that insulin resistance and excess levels of insulin, or hyperinsulinemia, in the body can lead to ovulation dysfunction and hyperandrogenism. This condition is known as polycystic ovarian syndrome, or PCOS, and affects approximately five to seven percent of reproductive-age women. This syndrome causes symptoms such as elevated testosterone levels; hirsutism, or excess hair growth; irregular menstrual cycles and infertility.  Read more: http://www.livestrong.com/article/325477-insulin-resistance-infertility/#ixzz2OzFSSSSZ  and related studies at PubMed. See also a good web site on Infertility Problems. See article at:  Natural Approaches to Fertility and Reproductive Problems by Melanie Koeman —> Page 3.

Fish better than Fishoil: TUESDAY, Oct. 30 (HealthDay News) — Eating fish, particularly oily fish, a couple of times a week may help protect you against stroke, but fish oil supplements don’t have the same effect, a new study finds. Researchers analyzed the results of 38 previous studies to examine the association between fish consumption and the risk of stroke or mini-stroke (know to doctors as transient ischemic attack). The studies included nearly 800,000 people in 15 countries. FITDAY.  See also further PubMed studies.

Too Much Fish Oil Might Boost Prostate Cancer Risk, Study Says

FOOD ADDICTION: Certain foods such as fat and/or sugar are capable of promoting “addiction” with increased risk for comorbid conditions such as obesity, early weight gain, depression, anxiety, and substance abuse as well as with relapse and treatment challenges. Corwin RL et al. (2009)

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