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Research Evidence For Hypoglycemia – Part 4 (P-Z)

By Jurriaan Plesman, BA(Psych), Post Grad Dip Clin Nutr

See also  INDEX of Specific Topics and Research and  References for Mood Disorders and Nutrition

Pain may lead to addiction, Peripheral Vascular Disease,  Phosphatidyl: Its role in health,  Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome, Porphyria,  Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Potassium-to Sodium Ratio, Pre-Diabetes Statistics,   Prickly-Pear Cactus, Prison studies, Probiotics, Procyanidolic oligomers, Prostate Gland, Prostate Cancer & Soy,  Pseudohypoglycemia, Psychiatric diagnosis & hypoglycemia, Psychological symptoms of hypoglycemia, Rational Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (RCBT), Reactive hypoglycemia, Recidivism in crime, RDA of Nutrients, ReferencesReligion, Restless leg syndrome, Resveratrol & Exercise, SADSardine oil, Schizophrenia, Scientific method, Self-harming, Serotonin and carbohydrates,  Serotonin synthesis, Serotonin synthesis and zinc, Shift workersShoplifting & stealingSleep Apnea & Glaucoma, Sleep Disorders,  Smoking, Bupropion for.  Sources of nutrients,  SSRIs ineffective, Stats for HypoglycemiaStevia, Stress -> Cortisol, Stress causes alcoholism in rats, Stress & Immune system, Stroke, Sugar and Sex Drive, Sugar consumption, Sugar & wound healing, Sugar consumption & Mental Illness, Sugar Dangerous to Health AppletonSuicidal Behaviour, Suicide Rate among elderly, Sulphur,   Sulphur and Heart Disease Treatment,  Sweet Tooth & Binge Drinking,  Syndrome X – Stats,  Tardive dyskinesia, Thiamine deficiency, THIQ, Thyroid Problems and chemicalsTreatment of Bipolar Disorder,  Trimethylglycine, Tryptophan, Tryptophan & Aggressive dogsTryptophan for various diseasesTyrosine, Ultraviolet radiation, Vanadium, Vegetarian Diets & Mental IllnessVideo Game addiction AddictionViolence & Aggression and here, Violence & HypoglycemiaVitamin B6, Vitamin C , and vanadiumVitamin D, Weedkillers & DepressionXylitol, Zinc, Zinc absorption

See also:

 Bupropion is used for the management of major depression and seasonal affective disorder (depression that occurs primarily during the fall and winter). It is also prescribed for smoking cessation. Medicinet See also Zyban.

PAIN: Chronic pain often leads to addiction to painkillers among those vulnerable to addiction. Depression and anxiety are associated with lowered threshold to pain and these may be symptoms of hypoglycemia.

“”When you are tense and anxious, even a minor stimulus can produce intense pain” “People who are in poor health, tired, depressed or otherwise out of sorts are also likely to have a low tolerance for pain” Reader’s Digest page 17.

“In addition, patients without headache and with diffuse pain reported more depression (78.2% vs. 45.8%) and anxiety (70.0% vs. 39.1%) than patients with headache. Quality of life measures were significantly reduced in patients with either nonheadache focal or diffuse conditions compared to patients with headache.” Marcus DA. 2003.

“The relationship between pain and anxiety is complex and bidirectional, with interactions occurring on physiologic and psychologic levels. There are a variety of psychopharmacologic, psychotherapeutic, and complementary/alternative treatments available.” Thielking PD. 2003.

“Ratings of depression and anxiety were greater in patients than in controls, and patients reported more cold-induced pain during a cold pressor test. Within the patient sample, anxious subjects gave the highest ratings of cold-induced pain. Those with the longest history of pain gave the highest ratings of whiplash injury pain, and were most depressed. Most of these patients were involved in litigation. The findings demonstrate that, like most patients with chronic pain, whiplash injury sufferers are anxious and depressed.” Lee J, Giles K, el al. 1993. See also Migraines    Management of Chronic Pain by Jur Plesman

PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASE: See also Diabetic Retinopathy.


POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN SYNDROME (PCOS): associated with insulin resistance (hypoglycemia) Pubmed references See also PCOS

POTASSIUM-TO-SODIUM RATIO: (Sometimes called Sodium-Potassium Ratio as here) Most Americans have a potassium-to-sodium (K:Na) ratio of less than 1:2. This means that most people ingest twice as much sodium as potassium. This is major factor in the epidemic of high blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases in Western society. Salt is used in the food processing industry to preserve food.

Researchers recommend a dietary K:Na ratio greater than 5:1 to maintain optimal health. This is ten times higher than the average intake. However, even this may not be optimal. A natural diet rich in fruits and vegetables can produce a K:Na ratio greater than 100:1, as most fruits and vegetables have a K:Na ratio of at least 50:1. For example, here are the average K:Na ratios for several common fresh fruits and vegetables:Apples 90:1,  Bananas 440:1,  Carrots 75:1,  Oranges 260:1,  Potatoes 110:1. Arch Intern Med. 2011;171(13):1183 -1191

It has been estimated that people in the Paleolithic era consumed 11,000 mg of potassium and 700 mg of sodium daily.[32] This would make the Paleolithic K:Na ratio to be nearly 16:1. See also: Potassium lowers Blood Pressure and How the Sodium-Potassium Pump works

POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER (PTSD): “Post-traumatic syndrome differs from the majority of other diagnostic categories as it includes in its criteria the presumptive cause of the trauma (criterion A).” but authors discuss the wider meaning of PTSD that may exclude an identifiable ‘trauma’. Waddington A, et als. 2003,

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder patient respond well to RCBT.

“Our findings indicate that stress hormones influence the development of PTSD through complex and simultaneous interactions on memory formation and retrieval.” Schelling G 2002. The traumatic event is more likely to be a trigger and not a cause of PTSD; Also see studies on PTSD and hypoglycemia.   See;  Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Hypoglycemia by Jur Plesman. Also: Google search for PTSD and Insulin Resistance

Pre-diabetes. percentage in The USA “In 2005–2008, based on fasting glucose or A1C levels, 35 percent of U.S. adults ages 20 years or older had prediabetes—50 percent of those ages 65 years or older. Applying this percentage to the entire U.S. population in 2010 yields an estimated 79 million Americans ages 20 years or older with pre-diabetes.”  National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse (NDIC)

Prediabetes now Strikes one in four Americans  “Almost 26 percent of U.S. adults over the age of 20 are pre-diabetics, and more than 35 percent of seniors, 60 and older. In total, that’s 57 million Americans walking around with pre-diabetes, in addition to the 24 million that have already crossed the line.  According to the population clock on the U.S. Census Bureau’s web site, the U.S. currently has just over 304,554,800 people. So, by my calculations we’re looking at a total of just over 26.5 percent of the entire U.S. population having either pre-diabetes, or some form of diabetes.” Mercola.com 19 July, 2008  Compare with Metabolic Syndrome.

PRICKLE-PEAR CACTUS (Opuntis ficus indica): “This study shows that the stems of the herb Prickle-pear cactus O. streptacantha Lem. cause a hypoglycemic effect in patients with NIDDM. The mechanism of this effect is unknown, but an increased insulin sensitivity is suggested.” Frati-Munari AC,, 1988,

PRISON STUDIES: Antisocial behaviour in prisons, including violence, are reduced by vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids with similar implications for those eating poor diets in the community.

Results Compared with placebos, those receiving the active capsules committed an average of 26.3% (95% CI 8.3-44.33%) fewer offences (P=0.03, two-tailed). Compared to baseline, the effect on those taking active supplements for a minimum of 2 weeks (n=172) was an average 35.1% (95% CI 16.3-53.9%) reduction of offences (P<0.001, two-tailed), whereas placebos remained within standard error. Similar study at PMID: 12091259

Recent prison experiences have shown that dietary change or nutrition education programs have successfully reduced disciplinary problems and improved morale. Studies of alcohol abusers and heroin addicts have shown a connection between poor eating habits and psychological problems. Diet, Crime and Delinquency, by A Schauss See also he Effects of Diet on Behavior: Implications for Criminology and Corrections by Diana Fishbein and Susan Pease

Prisoners with higher than normal levels of testosterone were found to be more aggressive. Joel Ehrenkranz et als. (1974)

Prison study to investigate link between diet and behaviour. Bio-Medicine 29/1/2008

See also Diet-Vitamin Program for Jail Inmates, B D’Asaro (1975)

PROBIOTICS: Several thousand billions of friendly bacteria most of them living in the digestive tract which help to maintain good health. Such bacteria, such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, reduce the levels of harmful bacteria and yeasts, produce lactase an enzyme important in the digestion of milk and also involves in the production of B vitamins, such as niacin, folic acid, pyridoxine. Bifidobacterium bifidum and B. Longum in the large intestine protects against harmful bacteria and yeasts, manufactures B vitamins and helps to detoxify bile. Streptococcus thermophilus and L. bulgaricus found in yoghurt produces lactic acid, which encourages growth of friendly bacteria and bacteriocins (natural anti-biotic) that kill harmful bacteria. Lactobacilli, Bifidobacteria and Streptococci are most commonly found in probiotic supplements. Strohecker 35.  Several Studies on Probiotics and Mood Disorders. Also search under “Obesity”.

PROCYANIDOLIC OLIGOMERS (PCO): also known as leukocyanidins or pycnogenols or proanthocyanidins, are complexes of flavonoids (polyphenols). Most commercial preparation us PCO extracts from grape seed skin (Vitis vinifera), although PCOs can also be extracted from the bark of Landes pine, the bracts of the lime tree, and the leaves of hazel-nut tree. The standard therapeutic dose is 150 – 300 mg per day. They have a similar action as Bilberries and are used in the treatment of

Peripheral vascular disease, retinopathy, and vascular fragility. See Diabetic Retinopathy.


Prostate Cancer: The main objective of the present study was to determine the potential of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids or coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) to alter serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in normal healthy men. In multivariable analysis, serum values of PSA were strongly correlated with duration of EPA (r - 0·62; 95 % CI - 0·42, - 0·77; P= 0·003), n-6 (r 0·42; 95 % CI 0·31, 0·58; P= 0·02) and CoQ10 use (r - 0·77; 95 % CI - 0·56, - 0·87; P= 0·001). There were also significant correlations between serum values of DHA, EPA, GLA and CoQ10 and serum PSA levels. The present study demonstrates that dietary supplements containing EPA, GLA or CoQ10 may significantly affect serum PSA levels. PMID: 23199523

Soy Doesn’t Prevent Prostate Cancer Return

PSEUDOHYPOGLYCEMIA: Elks ML 1990, Here we have an example of a study that claims to show that symptoms are not due to ‘hypoglycemia’. Blood sugar levels were measured intermittently at time of ‘episodes’. Measurements of blood sugar levels over time were ignored. See Samra for proper test. Patients are then classed as ‘psychiatric’ patients. Thus we see a conflict of meanings of ‘hypoglycemia’ used by patients and doctors. This study ignores the fact that ” Normal blood level is 0.06µg/L but when an animal is aroused and galvanized into readiness to fight or flee, adrenaline concentration in blood may increase to almost thousandfold in seconds or minutes.” (Lehninger, 728) see: Adrenaline, hence by the time you measure the BSL it is already raised. The sudden descent from high to low should have been measured.

“Two patients with complaints of hypoglycemia came for evaluation, and both complained of intermittent episodes of mental dullness, disorientation, confusion, and palpitations relieved by eating. Recognition of this connection did not decrease the frequency of episodes. Both persistently refer to the episodes as “hypoglycemia” despite recognition that no glucose level below 70 mg/dL has been recorded during an episode. Recurrent episodes of derealization and depersonalization in both patients appear to be sequelae of adolescent incest experiences, but these patients cling to the label “hypoglycemia,” perhaps in part because they are unwilling to accept a psychiatric diagnosis for their episodes.” —> Psychiatric diagnosis & Hypoglycemia

PSYCHIATRIC DIAGNOSIS & HYPOGLYCEMIA: “It is a common assumption in our medicalized society that diagnostic labels simply describe facts, rather than express the diagnostician’s own concepts of anomaly and dysfunction. Variability among physicians in diagnosing reactive hypoglycemia illustrates some fundamental problems of reifying the concept of disease.etc etc” Hunt LM, 1985, —> Pseudohypoglycemia

PSYCHIATRY: A Critique video 1h. 34 min

PSYCHOLOGICAL SYMPTOMS & HYPOGLYCEMIA: In diabetes “Psychological factors such as elevated anxiety levels (“negative affectivity”) can influence blood glucose estimation and symptom detection in adolescents and young adults and may explain why some individuals are more adept than others at reducing their risk of severe hypoglycemia after participation in a formal blood glucose awareness training program.” Ryan CM, et als. 2002,

RATIONAL COGNITIVE BEHAVIOUR THERAPY (RCBT): Cognitive behaviour therapy is a potentially useful adjunct treatment in the management of patients with chronic schizophrenia. Tarrier N 1998.

What is RCBT? A short interpretation.

“Patients who received CBT reported less intense PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder) symptoms, and particularly less frequent and less avoidance symptoms, than patients who received SC. These findings suggest that early provision of CBT in the initial month after trauma has long-term benefits for people who are at risk of developing PTSD.” Bryant RA, et als. 2003,

” In patients showing only partial response to antidepressants, the addition of CT produced modest improvements in social and psychological functioning. The implications for research on the mechanisms of action of CT are discussed.” Scott J, et als. 2000,,

Also see: Assumptions in Psychotherapy by Jur Plesman See also Psychotherapy Ineffective.

REACTIVE HYPOGLYCEMIA: associated with alcoholism, violent offences, fire setters, impulsive behaviour 15 Pubmed Studies

RECIDIVISM IN CRIME: Recidivism is explained in the article “The Forgotten Factor…”

RELIGION: Religiosity may be protective against substance abuse. Wills TA et als., 2003,

RESTLESS LEG SYNDROME: (What is?) 8 per cent associated with Reactive Hypoglycemia. ( J Am Geriatr Soc 1965;13:602–8.) Other studies. Pubmed Norma G. Cuella, Treatment. Treatment of Restless leg Syndrome see: Dr Jacob Teitelbaum.

RESERVATROL may Block befits of exercise: THURSDAY, July 25 (HealthDay News) — Although some antioxidants may be good, more may not be better. New research suggests that resveratrol, a natural antioxidant found in red grapes and products derived from them — such as red wine — could offset the health benefits of exercise in older men.

The study involved 27 healthy but inactive men, all nonsmokers around 65 years old. The University of Copenhagen researchers had the men engage in high-intensity exercise, which included full-body circuit training, for a total of eight weeks. PMID: 23878368. See also at Rich Sources and at Index

SARDINE OIL: rich in omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E may increase Red Cell membrane (RBC) fluidity and potentially reduce diabetic symptoms due to impaired cell deformability such as intermittent claudication. Werbach, 1987, 181 and Kamada T, 1986,

SCHIZOPHRENIA Several authors see schizophrenia as a “diabetic brain’, “cerebral diabetes’. This come close to Dr George Samra’s definition of ‘ Cerebral hypoglycia’ as low intracellular glucose availability to the brain Holden RJ(1), Holden RJ (2) Holden RJ (3) —> Diabetic gene in schizophrenics. See also PuBMed Study. Other studies association schizophrenia with metabolic syndrome (by implication hypoglycemia) here.

“The Nutritional Aspects of Schizophrenia” by Plesman, J go to page 7 of Newsletter

Schizophrenics can benefit from glycine supplements Heresco-Levy U,1996

For reports on glycine see Glycine and its use in schizophrenia.

Influence of the —> DIABETIC GENE on schizophrenia PMID 20832248 and 23656854. —> Zinc below.

“This model is supported by a variety of evidence, including a significant effect of gluten or its absence on relapsed schizophrenic patients, the high correlation of changes in first admission rates for schizophrenia with changes in grain consumption rates, and the rarity of cases of schizophrenia where grains and milk are rare.” Dohan FC. 1988,

Glucose Intolerance associated with schizophrenia –> 12 Pubmed studies

“More than 15% of the drug-naive, first-episode patients with schizophrenia had impaired fasting glucose tolerance, compared to none of the healthy volunteers. ” Am.J.Psychiatry, 2003 Feb 160(2):284 and more

See also “Leaky Gut Syndrome”

SCIENTIFIC METHOD: Scientific knowledge may have no more persuasive power in changing people’s beliefs and behaviour than religious faith or money , but at least its philosophy can be shared by all. I have attempted to explain scientific method in an article in one of our Newsletters at page 5. See Max Planck.

See also Scientific method at: Wikipedia

SELF-HARMING: depression is associated with suicidality and deliberate self-harm, See PubMed studies. There is a close association between depression and self-harm or self-mutilation. See here and Self-Harming – Why?

SEROTONIN & CARBOHYDRATES: “Administration of a small carbohydrate-rich meal increases the level of serotonin in the brain, and this in turn increases the amount of protein in relation to carbohydrate eaten at the subsequent meal. If tryptophan is given before a meal a similar result may be anticipated since serotonin levels will rise and reduce calorie intake, via higher protein, lower carbohydrate meal, will result. voluntarily. The phenomenon of carbohydrate craving [sugar addition], found in many people on a reducing diet based on a high protein diet, may therefore be the result of reduced serotonin, due to high protein intake.” Chaitow 64,

“Should there be a a deficiency, or insufficency, of B6 then upon the oral intake of tryptophan there would occur a urinary spill of the tryptophan metabolite xanthurenic acid” Chaitow 68,

“For dogs with dominance aggression, the addition of tryptophan to high-protein diets or change to a low-protein diet may reduce aggression. For dogs with territorial aggression, tryptophan supplementation of a low-protein diet may be helpful in reducing aggression.” For an article on this topic go to: “Nutritional Effects on Serotonin and Behavioural Aggression in Dogs” by Kate Robson

“Therapeutic administration of 5-HTP has been shown to be effective in treating a wide variety of conditions, including depression, fibromyalgia, binge eating associated with obesity, chronic headaches, and insomnia.” [5-HTP or 5-hydroxytryptophan is the immediate precursor to serotonin and unlike L-tryptophan does not need to be take away from other food] [Pain] Birdsall TC 1998,

“These results indicate that tryptophan and some of its metabolites possess analgesic properties.” Heyliger SO, et als. 1998,

“Serotonin substrate supplementation, via L-tryptophan or 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), has been shown to improve symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia and somatic pains [fibromyalgia] in a variety of patient cohorts. Identification of low serum tryptophan and serotonin levels may be a simple way to identify persons who will respond well to this approach.” Juhl JH. 1998,

“The evidence is reviewed that violent and suicidal behavior is associated with a deficiency of the serotonin system and that individuals with poor impulse control tend to become hypoglycemic during an oral glucose tolerance test, and have low levels of 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid in the cerebrospinal fluid. It is postulated that serotonergic deficits may predispose individuals to poor impulse control, disturbance of glucose metabolism, alcohol abuse, violent behavior and suicide.” Roy A, Virkkunen M, Linnoila M. 1988. See also: Tyrosine.

SEASONAL AFFECTIVE DISORDER (SAD): Full spectrum sunlight is a major source of Vitamin D3, necessary in the production of serotonin, lack of which may be responsible for depression, anxiety, insomnia (or hypersomnia or sleepiness), sugar cravings, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), lymph node pain, or enlargement, irritability, cognitive disturbances. It seems conceivable that annually recurring cycles of low vitamin D and mild secondary hyperparathyroidism during the winter months contributes, at least in part and over many years, to age-related bone loss. Supplementation with low-dose oral vitamin D3 and calcium during winter may be an efficient and inexpensive strategy for the primary prevention of bone loss in northern latitudes. Vitamin D3 is synthesized in skin by exposure to sunlight (ultraviolet radiation) and obtained in the diet chiefly in fish liver oils and egg yolks. Inadequate exposure to sunlight may cause vitamin D deficiency. Deficiency impairs bone mineralization, causing rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults and may contribute to osteoporosis. Light therapy may provide patients with CFS an effective treatment alternative or adjunct to antidepressant drugs. Sources: (1)(2)(3)(4)(5)

146 Reasons Why Sugar is Ruining your Health by Nancy Appleton PhD

SEROTONIN SYNTHESIS: “These gastrointestinal problems would also cause problems with the synthesis and degradation of the glucose necessary to fuel the electro-chemical processes in the brain. A deficiency or uneven supply of glucose would result in a deficiency or uneven supply of the glucose energy derivative ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is required for the synthesis, degradation and firing of neurotransmitter molecules. ATP is converted to cystic AMP (cAMP), an important messenger system and reaction substrate in the brain and body. An inadequate supply of ATP would result in an inadequate supply of the cAMP required for the phosphorylation of tryptophan hydroxylase into serotonin.”


SEROTONIN synthesis and zinc: see—> Zinc

SHIFT WORKERS: have a higher risk for diabetes. Unstable circadian cycle may interfere with normal blood sugar levels. This applies especially to nurses doing irregular working hours. Diabetes and metabolic syndrome. A number of studies have found that shift work seems to be a risk factor for diabetes. One Japanese study found that shift workers — specifically, those who worked 16-hour shifts — had a 50% higher incidence of diabetes than day workers. CNN

SHOPLIFTING & STEALING: “Clinical evidence of depression present for some months before an episode of shoplifting without criminal intent was found in all 17 patients interviewed after the offence. The person at risk would appear to be a depressed middle-aged woman with a passive-dependent personality, married to an ineffectual rejecting husband who is unable to meet her dependency in times of crisis. Recognition of her depression and appropriate intervention are essential if a criminal deed is to be avoided.” Davis H. 1979,

“However, in this case kleptomania was in fact risk-taking behavior in response to depression. Psychodynamically, risk-taking behavior may be important in kleptomania.” Fishbain DA, 1987,

“This paper compares two groups of adult female offenders involved in shoplifting and fraudulent behaviour. Twenty women were studied whose first offenses occurred in their mid-life period. The major findings conclude that an unresolved mourning or loss in the context of high stress and depression is one of the commonalities in the two groups. Another commonality is that a defined classical role for these women is conflictual and the relationship established with their spouses is a repetition of their relationship with their father.” Fugere R, et als. 1995,

“The authors suggest 2 categories of shoplifters: those who shoplift through rational choice; and those for whom shoplifting is a response to depression or leads to the fulfillment of some psychological needs.” Lamontagne Y, et als. 2000,

“Across all 3 groups, current shoplifting was associated with low self-esteem, elevated depression, and purging behaviours at the time of the assessment.” Goldner EM, et als. 2000,

“Female offenders report most of their income as coming from drugs sales, shoplifting, and larceny. For all of the women addicted to heroin, reselling drugs and prostitution were the usual means of support.” James J, et als. 1979,

SLEEP APNEA May Be Linked to Glaucoma, Study Says  08/16/2013 02:00 PM EDT Researchers recommend screenings for people with the sleep disorder

SOURCES OF NUTRIENTS: If you want to know what foods are rich in certain nutrients go to Rich Sources of Nutrients

Search Contents foods at USDA

If you want to know the food content of a food item go to SelfNurtitionData, National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, enter Keyword in Search Engine and click ENTER/RETURN.

If you want to know what food items contains a nutrient sorted alphabetically or by nutrient content go to Nutrient Lists. For example, what food item contains the most zinc??

Another excellent and useful link to sources of nutrients and composition of food can be found at USDA Nutritient Data Laboratory. In this web site “Use ND’s Nutrient Search Tool to find the foods that are lowest in carbohydrates, highest in protein, or that match any other dietary restrictions or goals.”

SSRIs: Although antidepressant medication is widely regarded as effective, a recent meta-analysis of published clinical trials indicates that 80 percent of the response to antidepressants is duplicated by placebo. Irving Kirsch.  “An extensive survey of conventional treatment for mood disorders centering around drug therapy and/or psychotherapy has shown that about 30 percent may have some benefit, leaving about 70 per cent with treatment resistant depression”. “Most important, this study demonstrates that for at least 70% of patients, appropriate treatment with an SSRI is not enough.” Thomas R Insel MD Beyond Efficacy: The Star*D Trial. For a critical view on studies with SSRIs see CL Whitfield.

“The fact that 60–70% of all patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) meet criteria for treatment resistant depression (TRD) underscores the need for systematic development of innovative treatments for TRD. PubMed.  Antidepressants work for 35 to 45% of the depressed population, while more recent figures suggest as low as 30%. Source. For more studies of doubtful outcomes of treatment with medication and/or psychotherapy see here. See also: Asarnow JP et als. (2009) showing that a combined treatment of drugs and CBT is slightly more beneficial under certain circumstances.

If drug and placebo effects are additive, the pharmacological effects of antidepressants are clinically negligible. Krirsch I et als (2002) Prevention and Treatment Vol 5(1) Jul 2002

“Meta-analyses of antidepressant medications have reported only modest benefits over placebo treatment, and when unpublished trial data are included, the benefit falls below accepted criteria for clinical significance.” Irving Kirsch et als (2008)

“Anti-depressants’ ‘little effect’” at BBCNews

“Things Your Doctor Should Tell You About Antidepressants” By Paul Adrews at als, 12 Sept 2012

Antidepressants are associated with Glucose DysregulationPMID 22913904

Conclusions (SSRIs): For adolescents with moderate to severe major depression there is no evidence that the combination of CBT plus an SSRI in the presence of routine clinical care contributes to an improved outcome by 28 weeks compared with the provision of routine clinical care plus an SSRI alone. ”Goodyer i et als. PMID 17556431

The magnitude of benefit of antidepressant medication compared to placebo increases with severity of depression symptoms and may be minimal or nonexistent, on average, in patients with mild or moderate symptoms. For patients with severe depression the benefit of medication over placebo is substantial. Jay C Fournier et als 2010

See also: Psychotherapy may be ineffective.

Is Psychiatry a Scam? by Dr Colin Ross

Suicide rate increases among the elederly: A report released today by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reveals that the suicide rate among men and women aged 35 to 64 years increased by 28% — 32% for women and 27% for men — between 1999 and 2010.Medsape Today 2 May 2013.  See also: Suicide Rates of the world Wikipedia.

STEVIA: Stevia is not only a safe alternative sweetener, but it also improves glucose tolerance. Curi R, 1986, Stevia can reduce blood pressure. Melis 1995, Stevioside at 1000 mg/kg/d from day 6-15 of pregnant rats showed no toxic signs [Article in Japanese] Usami 1995 ,  How to grow Stevia. Stevia Company in Brazil, and more. See also How to Grow Stevia by Jurriaan Plesman —> Page 4

STRESS (—> CORTISOL) causes metabolic disorders including insulin resistance, diabetes etc. Bjorntorp P, 1999, can cause obesity, Bjorntorp P, 1995, Relation between psychological risk factors and ‘metabolic syndrome’ Raikkonen K et als. 2002,

“The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Burden of Disease Survey estimates that mental disease, including stress-related disorders, will be the second leading cause of disabilities by the year 2020. Although the term “stress” is used in a wide variety of contexts, it has consistently been demonstrated that individuals with stress and related disorders experience impaired physical and mental functioning, more work days lost, increased impairment at work, and a high use of health care services.” Kalia M. 2002,

Stress reduction techniques such as meditation, yoga, exercises, walking meditation, religion, praying, listening to classical music and others on a regular basis have this in common that they appear to calm the person and prevents to secretion of excess stress hormones (cortisol, adrenaline, HPA hormones) that interfere with the synthesis of serotonin. Thus these techniques seem to facilitate serotonin production – the hormone of satisfaction. Jorm AF, et als. 2002, Tyni-Lenne R, et als. 2002, Yung P, et als. 2001, and –> Religion.

” After the exposure to immobilization stress for 16 hr per day for 2 consecutive days, the adrenal glands of the mice hypertrophied, and their serum glucose level and corticosterone secretion became elevated, but insulin secretion did not change.” Kasuga S et als. 1999,

STRESS CAN CAUSE ALCOHOLISM IN RAT MODEL: “Chronic stress for two weeks increased the voluntary alcohol consumption and total caloric intake. Food intake alone seemed insufficient to provide the extra demand of energy due to prolonged stress and hence, the rats may be drinking increasing amounts of alcohol (when provided) to supply the extra energy required to combat stress.” Nagaraja HS, Jeganathan PS. 2002, This supports the hypothesis in Serotonin Connection, that in psychological stress a person will consume greater amounts of refined carbohydrates to provide extra energy to deal with stress, and incidentally speed up the absorption of tryptophan for conversion to serotonin.

STRESS & THE IMMUNE SYSTEM: Stress affects the immune system. Sheridan JF et als. 1994, O’Leary A. 1990,

“Cognitive states such as perceived control, views of the self, and views of the future have been associated with immune parameters and health in some studies. Very few controlled clinical trials have been conducted to determine if psychosocial interventions can impact the immune system and the progression of medical conditions. There is suggestive evidence for the health benefits of relaxation training, cognitive-behavioral stress management, and support groups.”Kemeny ME at al., 1999

“The old concept that stress depresses immunity must be qualified. There is now evidence that in the same way that different perceptions of stress have different physiological consequences,”Dantzer R. 1997,

“Stress-induced modulation of innate secretory immunity may be a contributing factor in the observed relationship between stress and susceptibility to infectious diseases. We further propose a more differentiated approach to acute stress by distinguishing among stressors with distinct autonomic nervous system effects.” Bosch JA, et als. 2003,

Comment: If stress undermines the immune system in humans it would also in animals. One wonders how much our treatment of animals under stress contribute to the emergence of new opportunistic viruses such as SARS. There is very little research into the biochemical effects on humans by human-imposed stress hormones in animals. See: Zoonotic Diseases, Human Health and farm animla Welfare

STROKE: “Acute hyperglycemia predicts increased risk of in-hospital mortality after ischemic stroke in nondiabetic patients and increased risk of poor functional recovery in nondiabetic stroke survivors.” Capes SE, et als. 2001,

“Hyperglycemia is common and involves up to 50% of the acute stroke patients. Several clinical studies have revealed that hyperglycemia is associated with a poor outcome in terms of mortality and neurological recovery. The results obtained from experimental studies have shown that hyperglycemia exacerbates the ischemic lesions and is associated with an increase of the edema and size of the infarct, as well as a decrease in the cerebral blood flow. Elevated plasma glucose levels (glycemia > 8 mmol/L) predict poor prognosis, irrespective of age, severity, or stroke sub-type. The benefit to treat a glycemia >=11 mmol/l has been established in terms of mortality for patients with myocardial infarction. Although the clinical benefit of plasma glucose lowering therapy remains unknown regarding acute stroke, based on current evidence, we recommend to treat moderate to mild hyperglycemia with glucose potassium insulin infusions.” Mazighi M, et al. 2001,

“Thus, the trial suggests that sublingual application of 1.0-2. 0 g/day glycine started within 6 h after the onset of acute ischaemic stroke in the carotid artery territory is safe and can exert favourable clinical effects. These results will be verified in further trials with a larger number of patients”. Gusev EI et als. 2000,

Sulphur, Sulfur: Role in cardiovascular disease and detoxification 7 Part Youtube movie of an interview by Dr Joseph Mercola of Dr Stephanie Seneff. This may lead to an entirely new treatment for heart Diseases in the future.

SUGAR: Avoid sugar in immunodepression, wound healing, burn victims, skin grafts, bacterial infections

SUGAR can turn off sex drive: (impotence) Glucose and fructose are metabolized in the liver. When there’s too much sugar in the diet, the liver converts it to lipid. Using a mouse model and human liver cell cultures, the scientists discovered that the increased production of lipid shut down a gene called SHBG (sex hormone binding globulin), reducing the amount of SHBG protein in the blood. SHBG protein plays a key role in controlling the amount of testosterone and estrogen that’s available throughout the body. Source: Child & Family Research Institute, 2007

SUGAR CONSUMPTION: Conclusions. High consumption levels of sugar-containing soft drinks were associated with mental health problems among adolescents even after adjustment for possible confounders. Lars Lien MD MSc et als (2006)

For the six countries with available data for the primary analysis, there was a highly significant correlation between sugar consumption and the annual rate of depression (Pearson correlation 0.948, P=0.004). Westove AN at al.(2002).

Sweet Tooth May Foretell of Binge Drinking, Brain Scans Show 07/12/2013 05:00 PM EDT Preference for alcohol, sugary water both show up in reward center; finding could aid future research

SULPHUR: Go to Index of Specific Topics and look for Sulphur

TARDIVE DYSKINESIA (TD) is a syndrome of potentially irreversible, involuntary, dyskinetic movements that may develop in patients who have been treated with antipsychotic medications (chlorpromazine (Thorazine®), thioridazine (Mellaril®), and trifluoperazine (Stelazine®).) (for example phenothiazines) longer-term. Other drugs known to cause tardive dyskinesia include: tricyclic antidepressants, selegiline, clozapine, levamisole and metoclopramide. People with TD suffer from repetitive and uncontrollable repetitive movements that can interfere greatly with their quality of life.

The supplementation of vitamin E, choline, Lecithin, dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE), manganese, Evening Primerose Oil (EPO). Some reports show that people with TD have higher levels of the amino acid phenylalanine.

Supplementing with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), including valine, isoleucine, and leucine, could reduce excess phenylalanine in people with this disorder. See Rich Sources of Nutrients.

Some studies have shown that megavitamin regimen that included vitamin C (up to 4 grams per day), vitamin B3—either as niacin or niacinamide—(up to 4 grams per day), vitamin B6 (up to 800 mg per day), and vitamin E (up to 1,200 IU per day) have been show to prevent TD altogether.   See also: Tardive Dyskinesia at Herbs2000

“OBJECTIVES. To evaluate the effect of chronic quercetin treatment on haloperidol-induced orofacial dyskinesia. The results of the present study clearly indicate that quercetin has a protective role against haloperidol-induced orofacial dyskinesia. Consequently, the use of quercetin as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of tardive dyskinesia should be considered.” Naidu PS, et als. 2003

“Five studies have reported that a low selenium intake was associated with poorer mood. Although there is evidence that supplementation with anti-oxidant vitamins shown some promise with Alzheimer’s patients, and in preventing the development of tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenics taking neuroleptics, a role for selenium has been little considered.” Benton D. 2002,

“Withania somnifera glycowithanolides (WSG) were investigated for their preventive effect on the animal model of tardive dyskinesia (TD), induced by once daily administration of the neuroleptic, haloperidol (1.5 mg/kg, i.p.), for 28 days. The results indicate that the reported antioxidant effect of WSG, rather than its GABA-mimetic action, may be responsible for the prevention of haloperidol-induced TD.” Bhattacharya SK et als. 2002,

“In a single inpatient case study, a schizophrenic patient with tardive dyskinesia after prolonged treatment with typical neuroleptics was treated with the new atypical neuroleptic quetiapine, a dibenzothiazepin-derivative. Within 2 weeks of treatment with quetiapine, symptoms of tardive dyskinesia improved; 10 weeks after starting treatment tardive dyskinesia stopped completely. Over the same period, dopamine D2 receptor occupancy decreased substantially, as measured by IBZM-SPECT after 14 and 77 days of treatment.” Vesely C, at als. 2000,

“We have found that schizophrenic patients who eat more (n-3) fatty acids in their normal diet have less severe symptoms. In a pilot study of (n-3) fatty acid supplementation we observed significant improvement in both schizophrenic symptoms and tardive dyskinesia over a 6 week period.” Peet M, et als. 1996,

“The incidence of Tardive Dyskinesia (TD) was significantly higher in groups of patients in which alcohol alone (25.4%) or in combination with cannabis (26.7%) was the drug of abuse than in those groups in which alcohol was either absent or used in combination with sedatives, opioids, or stimulants. It is concluded that chronic use of alcohol by mental patients undergoing pharmacotherapy with neuroleptics enhances the vulnerability of these patients to TD.” Olivera AA, et als. 1990,

“Although early studies of pyridoxine in tardive dyskinesia have not been encouraging, the results of the present study suggest that high doses of pyridoxine may reduce the frequency and severity of involuntary movements in tardive dyskinesia.” DeVeaugh-Geiss J, et al.1978,

THIAMINE DEFICIENCY associated with violent behaviour. “Although in many of the cases the etiology appeared to be associated with heavy consumption of “junk” foods, carbonated or sweet beverages, and candy, this was not so in all of them and the etiology in these cases remains obscure.”..”all were clinically improved by the administration of thiamin” Lonsdale D, Shamberger RJ 1980 PMID: 7355794

Thyroid Problems and Perfluorinated Chemicals: WEDNESDAY, July 17 (HealthDay News) — Exposure to a class of chemicals used to make a wide range of consumer products can cause changes in thyroid function, according to a new study. People have widespread exposure to perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), which are used to manufacture items such as fabrics, carpets, cosmetics and paper coatings. These chemicals break down very slowly and take a long time to leave the body. HealthDay 17.7.13.

Trimethylglycine, also known as TMG, originally named betaine after its discovery in sugar beets. Is used to treat high homocysteine levels associated with the clogging of arteries in cardiovascular diseases. Betaine hydrochloride (betaine HCL) is a methyl donor. Food items with the highest content of betaine are wheat, spinach, shellfish and sugar beets. The conversion of choline to betaine is a two-step enzymic process, which occurs in the liver and kidney. Choline is first oxidised to betaine aldehyde, a reaction catalysed by the mitochondrial choline oxidase (choline dehydrogenase, EC In a subsequent step, betaine aldehyde is further oxidised in the mitochondria or cytoplasm to betaine by betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase. Betaine Metabolism

TRYPTOPHAN: —> serotonin

TYROSINE: Supplementation may be beneficial in depression. Source

ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION: For the benefits and harmful effects and types of ultraviolet radiation. PMID 8507288

VANADIUM has an insulin-like effect. Vanadium treatment of diabetic animals does not restore plasma insulin levels but may spare pancreatic insulin. Vanadium Diabetes Therapy.

Elevated vanadium has been reported in the plasma of patients with mania and depression and in the hair of patients with mania. “The mean vanadium content of the hair of the manic group was significantly higher than that of the control group and that of the group of recovered manics.” Naylor GJ 1984,

“Manic patients responded significantly better to lithium than to ascorbic acid and EDTA. These results are in keeping with the suggestion that vanadium may be of aetiological importance in depressive psychosis, but do not support such a suggestion for mania.” Kay DS, 1984

Vanadyl sulfate may improve glucose control in people with type 2 diabetes, supported by four studies.  Wikipedia

Vitamin C may possibly reduce symptoms of bipolar disorder due to its ability to the detrimental effects on vanadium on Red Blood cell Ca+ -k+ -ATPase activity by reducing vanadate (+5)to the vandyl ion (+4), the latter being much less effective inhibitor of Na+ -K+-ATPase activity than the former. Werbach 1991, 84.

“The effect of Vitamin C in manic-depressive psychosis was assessed by a double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover trial. Both manic and depressed patients were significantly better following a single 3 g dose of Vitamin C than following a placebo.” Naylor GJ, et al. 1981,

Vegetarian Diets are correlated with an increase in mental illness. Emily Deans MD

Video Game Addiction is linked to Depression and anxiety and hence may be linked to hypoglycemia. Index to Specific Topics

VIOLENCE & AGGRESSION: High copper levels indicate a zinc deficiency. There may be a high copper/zinc ratio among assaultive people. Walsh WJ et al,1997

This supports the notion that less physical affection (or more physical neglect) can contribute to greater aggression. Massage therapy beneficial, Field T, 2002

Violent offenders may have hypoglycemia. See Violence and Food in Getting off he Hook by Jurriaan Plesman Page 12

Twenty-five studies JOM studies linking Violence and Hypoglycemia.

Overly aggressive behaviour may be associated with an elevated sugar intake. Schauss 1980, 22-26,

Reduction in sugar intake may improve aggressive/delinquent behaviour. Werbach 1991, 3,

“Habitual sugar consumption and behavior following challenge by sugar and aspartame were studied in 30 preschool boys. The 18 subjects whose parents considered them sugar reactive had more disruptive behavior problems at baseline than the other 12 subjects. Habitual sugar consumption correlated only with duration of aggression against property in alleged responders.” No differences with aspartame. Kruesi MJ, et als, 1987,

“Nutritional Influences on Aggressive Behavior” Werbach MR (1995)

Tryptophan aggressive dogs see here also above

See also studies on violent behaviour.

Self-report questionnaires indicate that reduced sugar consumption among prison inmates improve morale, mood, and self-motivated behavior. D’Asaro, et als 1975.

Studies show that 69 percent of participants who were violent at the age of 34 had eaten sweets and chocolate nearly every day during childhood, compared to to 42 percent of those who were non-violent. Mercola

See also Prison Studies.

VITAMIN B6 (PYRIDOXINE): (50mg per day but dosage should be determined by Health Practitioner) Required in conversion of tryptophan to serotonin. Deficiency may be responsible for depression and anxiety. Werbach 1991, 51, Vitamin B6 deficiency is associated with lack of dream recall. Ebben M et als, (2002)

VITAMIN C: (ASCORBIC ACID), Addicts can tolerate high doses of vitamin C which is used in ethanol detoxification. Excess vitamin C may result in diarrhea and dosage should be 1,000 mg below tolerance level. In one study 91% of 35 patients with alcohol-related illness were found to be vitamin C deficient. (Baines M. Detection and incidence of B and C vitamin deficiency in alcohol-related illness. Ann Clin Biochem. 1978 Nov;15(6): 307-12. PMID: 32828)

VITAMIN D: Both depressive symptoms and vitamin D insufficiency are common during winter. “Recent findings from a randomized trial suggest that high doses of supplemental vitamin D may improve mild depressive symptoms, but important questions persist concerning how vitamin D may affect monoamine function and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to stress, whether vitamin D supplementation can improve mood in individuals with moderate-to-severe depression, and whether vitamin D sufficiency is protective against incident depression and recurrence.” Bertone-Johnsom ER (2009),

Vitamin D deficiency associated with low mood and worse cognitive performance in older Adults, Wilkins, Consuelo H et als. (2006)

Studies showing an association between depression and vitamin D deficiency here.

Vitamin D supplementation in a dose of 700-1000 IU a day reduced the risk of falling among the elderly by 19% BMJ 2009;339:b3692.

Vitamin D supplementation is also reported to play a role in the treatment of the Pandemic Flu as winter approaches. See: Nutrition against the Pandemic Flu.

Dosage: Reasonable dietary levels: 200 IUs, Pharmacologic Dosage range 400- 1000 IU. The best source is from the sun.

Notes on Vitamin D

Vitamin D & Insulin Resistance  “it has been proposed that vitamin D deficiency plays an important role in insulin resistance resulting in diabetes.” Vitamin D helps to “to maintain glucose homeostasis and mediate insulin sensitivity by a low calcium status, obesity, or by elevating serum levels of parathyroid hormone.”. “Although there is evidence to support a relationship between vitamin D status and insulin resistance, the underlying mechanism requires further exploration.” PMID: 22988423

Vitamin D Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Obese: Obese adults and children may have lower vitamin D status than their lean peers, and some studies have shown inverse associations between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and fasting glucose and insulin levels. See also : Anthony M Belenchia at als 13 Feb 2013

Vitamin D and Bone Breaks

Low serum vitamin D concentration was associated with an increased risk of developing “insulin-requiring” diabetes in a nested case-control study of active-duty military service members. Medscape 3 Dec 2012

Vitamin D3 and Gene Expression of White Blood Cells: Our data suggest that any improvement in vitamin D status will significantly affect expression of genes that have a wide variety of biologic functions of more than 160 pathways linked to cancer, autoimmune disorders and cardiovascular disease wich have been associated with vitamin D deficiency. This study reveals for the first time molecular finger prints that help explain the nonskeletal health benefits of vitamin. Jenny Eriksen Boston University

Extra Vitamin D Doesn’t Cut High Blood Pressure In older people with low vitamin D levels and a common type of high blood pressure, vitamin D supplements do not appear to lower blood pressure, according to a new study from the UK.

For more on Vitamin D —->  Vitamin D

Weedkillers Tied to Depression in Farmers: Farmers who used weedkillers were more than twice as likely to be treated for depression than farmers who didn’t use the chemicals in a new study from France. Whether the weedkillers are causing depression “is not clear,” said Marc Weisskopf, the study’s lead author and an associate professor at the Harvard School of Public Health. “But (the result) suggests we should not be ignoring herbicides just because they’re targeting plants.” Kerry Grens .

XYLITOL: “Xylitol is not only a safe, natural sweetener without the bad side-effects of sugar and artificial substitutes, it’s also good for your teeth, stabilises insulin and hormone levels and promotes good health”. But it is too expensive for ordinary folks. Source

ZINC: Over 80 enzymes are known to require zinc as part of their prosthetic groups. These include alcohol dehydrogenase, carbonic anhydrase, DNA and RNA polymerases, and carboxypeptidase. Zinc is found in high concentrations in the prostate gland, sperm cells and the eyes, where it presumably plays an important but unknown function.

When phytate contained in certain breads used by some village populations in Iran combines with zinc, it prevents its absorption, which may cause an endemic zinc deficiency. 15mg/day is required by adults, pregnant and lactating women require more. Lehninger 783

Of serious concern are several case reports of individuals experiencing loss of the sense of smell (anosmia) after using intranasal zinc as a cold remedy. Linus Pauling Institute on Zinc

It has been suggested that Zinc deficiency during the gestational period may be related to development of schizophrenia. PMID: 2182985

Zinc required in alcohol dehydrogenase in alcohol metabolism. Lehninger, 209,

If zinc/copper ratio is greater than 2.5/1 copper absorption is decreased. Zinc toxicity: Daily ingestion of 150 mg zinc produced overt copper depletion with anemia in some patients. Werbach, 1987, 479,

Pharmacologic doses of zinc (100-300 mg daily) for several weeks can impair immune response, and could lower HDL cholesterol (good cholesterol), Werbach 1991, 284-5,

Zinc RDL male 15mg, female 12 mg, Pharmacologic Dosage range, 20-100mg, Werbach 1991, 287

For more information about zinc see: Linus Paulng Institute.

ZINC ABSORPTION: “In humans and animals, the quantity of zinc transported across the absorptive cells of the intestines is directly related to the availability of picolinic acid. Picolinic acid is synthesised in our bodies from the amino acid tryptophan. Vitamin B6 is needed for this reaction to occur.” Murray M et al., p.482

See also:

Index to Specific Topics and Research

References for Mood Disorders and Nutrition



Balch, James F, MD & Balch Phyllis (1997), PRESCRIPTION FOR NUTRITIONAL HEALING, Avery Publishing Group, New York

Chaitow,L(1985), AMINO ACIDS IN THERAPY, Thorsons Pub. Inc N.Y.

Florence TM & Setright RT (1994), THE HANDBOOK OF PREVENTIVE MEDICINE, Kingsclear Books

Head KA (2000), Inositol hexaniacinate: a safer alternative to niacin, Townsend Letter 201, 88-92

Lehninger AL(1982), PRINCIPLES OF BIOCHEMISTRY, Worth Publishers Inc.N.Y.

Macleod,J (Ed)(1984), DAVIDSON’S PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF MEDICINE, Churchill Livingstone, NY

Milne DB, Johnson PE (1993), Effects of changes in short-term dietary zinc intake on ethanol metabolism and zinc status indices in young men, Nutr Res 13, 511-521

Murray, MT & Pizzorno KJ.(1990), ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF NATURAL MEDICINE, Optima Macdonald & Co (pub) Ltd

Pearson,D. & Shaw,S.(1982), LIFE EXTENSION; A Practical Approach, Warner Books,NY

Pfeiffer,C.C.(1978), ZINC AND OTHER MICRO-NUTRIENTS, Keats Publishing Inc. New Canaan,Connecticut

Reader’s Digest (2001), CONQUER PAIN, Reader’s Digest Sydney

Reading, CM. & Meillon,R.S.(1984), RELATIVELY SPEAKING: THE FAMILY TREE WAY TO BETTER HEALTH, Fontana Australia, Sydney

Reading, CM & Meillon RS (2002) TRACE YOUR GENES TO HEALTH, Vital Publishing Ridge CT. At www.amazon,com

Samra, G (2003), THE HYPOGLYCEMIC CONNECTION II, One Stop Allergies, PO Box 394, Kogarah 2217 Sydney Australia, (Fax: 612-9588-5290)

Samra, G (2003),THE ALLERGY CONNECTION Food and Disease Paradigm, One Stop Allergies, PO Box 394, Kogarah 2217 Sydney Australia, (Fax: 612-9588-5290)

Schauss, AG(1980), DIET, CRIME AND DELINQUENCY, Parker House, Berkeley, Cal.

Strohecker, J (Ed), The Burton Goldberg Group, (1994), ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE: The definitive guide, Future Medicine Publishing, Puyallup WA

Stryer,Lubert (1988), BIOCHEMISTRY, WH Freeman and Co, NY

Werbach,M.R.(1987), NUTRITIONAL INFLUENCES ON ILLNESS, Third Line Pres,Inc.,Tarzana,Cal.

Werbach,M.R.(1991), NUTRITIONAL INFLUENCES ON MENTAL ILLNESS, Third Line Pres,Inc.,Tarzana,Cal.

Werbach,M.R. & Murray, M.T (1994) , BOTANICAL INFLUENCES ON ILLNESS, Third Line Pres,Inc.,Tarzana,Cal.

Werbach, MR (1996), Nutritional Influences on Illness: A Sourcebook of Clinical Research (second edition)

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