by Jurriaan Plesman, BA (Psych), Post Grad Dip Clin Nutr.
Another good source is Nutient List USDA National Nutrient Database
Nutrients are in alphabetical order.
Acetylcholine: A calming neurotransmitter produced from phosphatidylcholine in presence of vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) and helpful in the manic phase of bipolar disorder. To be avoided in depressive phase. Lecithin has a high content of phosphatidylcholine. It has been found that patients with Alzheimer’s Disease are not only deficient in acetylcholine, but also the enzyme that catalyzes its production – choline acetyl-transference.
Acid-forming foods: Alcohol, asparagus, beans, Brussels sprouts, buckwheat, catsup, chick-peas, cocoa, coffee, cornstarch , cranberries, eggs, fish, meats, flour based products, legumes, lentils, meat, milk, refined flours, sugar, cheese, mustard noodles, nuts and seeds, oatmeal, olives, organ meats, pasta, pepper, plums, poultry, prunes, sauerkraut, shellfish, soft drinks, refined sugars, tea, vinegar.
Acid-forming foods: Low level: Butter, Canned and glazed fruit, cheeses, dried coconut, dried or sulphured fruits (most), grains (wheat, corn, rye, barley and rice), ice cream, ice milk, lamb’s quarters, seeds and nuts (most).
Adenosine monophosphate: (AMP) is an intermediate substance formed in the body in creating energy in the form of of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from food, mainly carbohydrates. As a supplement may be useful in treatment of herpes zoster (shingles) and photosensitivity. Large doses may however interfere wit immune function. (JAMA 1985;253:1444–5)
Adenosinetriphosphate (ATP): A molecule of energy mainly derived from the metabolism of glucose from food sources (glycolysis) and required in all biochemical reactions of cells. When combined with methionine it forms SAM-e (natural antidepressant), an important methylator in the synthesis of neurotransmitters. See SAM-e,
Alanine: May help in hypoglycemia. Alanine is a nonessential amino acid made in the body from the conversion of the carbohydrate pyruvate or the breakdown of DNA and the dipeptides carnosine and anserine. It is highly concentrated in muscle and is one of the most important amino acids released by muscle, functioning as a major energy source. Plasma alanine is often decreased when the BCAA (Branched Chain Amino Acids) are deficient. This finding may relate to muscle metabolism. Alanine is highly concentrated in meat products and other high-protein foods like wheat germ and cottage cheese. Normal alanine metabolism, like that of other amino acids, is highly dependent upon enzymes that contain vitamin B6. Alanine, like GABA, taurine and glycine, is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. These inhibitory agents may be a useful therapy for some epileptics. Alanine is an important participant as well as regulator in glucose metabolism. Alanine levels parallel blood sugar levels in both diabetes and hypoglycemia, and alanine reduces both severe hypoglycemia and the ketosis of diabetes. It is an important amino acid for lymphocyte reproduction and immunity. Alanine therapy has helped dissolve kidney stones in experimental animals.
Alkaline-forming foods: Most fruits and vegetables, Avocados, corn, dates, fresh coconuts, fresh fruits (except cranberry and plums), fresh vegetables (except for lentils and corn), honey, maple syrup, molasses, raisins, soy products, dairy products (except cheese).
Allantoin: The allantois, from which allantoin gets its name, is an embryonic excretory organ present in most mammals, except humans and higher apes, in which the compound accumulates. Animals produce allantois as a byproduct of purine catabolism, in which the waste product uric acid is oxidized and broken down. It is also present in plants including comfrey, sugar beet, tobacco seed, chamomile, and wheat sprouts. Herbal extract of comfrey is a popular source of allantoin. It may also be synthesized from animal urea. Source
Allergies: The foods that cause 90 per cent of allergic reactions are peanuts, milk, eggs, sesame, soy, tree nuts (e.g. almonds an walnuts) fish and shell fish.
Allergies and criminal behaviour: Food reactions in order of frequency: dried apricots & chocolate, fruit squash, flavoured chips, sugar, wheat & milk, banana, cheese & chewing gum, apple, coffee & oats, lamb, beef, bacon, peanut, cabbage, yeast. See also Allergies 75% among juvenile offenders: C Peter et als. 1997
Allium compounds: (Beneficial to the immune system) Garlic, onions, leeks, chives, shallots.
Alpha carotene: Red Palm Oil.
Alpha-linolenic acid: (Omega-3 fatty acid) converted to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) which reduce platelet aggregation, promote vasodilation and inhibit inflammatory substances thromboxane and leukotrienes derived from linseed, rapeseed, soybean, walnut and fishoil. Some recent research indicate that high consumption of vegetable sources ( walnut oil, rapeseed oil and soy oil canola oil. Olive oil and corn oil have only 10% of the alpha-linolenic content.) could increase risk of prostate cancer. Colditz GA(2000), Cancer Causes and control 11, 677-678.
Alpha-lipoic acid: see Lipoic acid:
Aluminium: From cooking vessels, aluminium containing medications, some fruits and vegetables, poorly absorbed, no known function, decreases phosphate absorption leading to bone diseases, altered mental function. Silicon reduces the bioavailability of aluminium in drinking water. One source claims that toothpaste may be a major source of aluminium, and could be responsible for Alzheimer’s Disease.
Amines: Vasoactive Amines: [Chemical compounds that contain nitrogen. They are formed by the decarboxylation from amino acids, units from which proteins are made. They are important in foods. Phenylethylamine (formed from phenylalanine), tyramine (formed from tyrosine), and tryptamine (from tryptophan) are found in ripened cheeses, chocolate, yeast, wines and fermented foods. They stimulate the sympathetic nervous system, and can cause high blood pressure, and they may cause migraines. Amines are deactivated by the enzyme monoamine oxidase or diamine oxidase, and some antidepressants such as monoamine oxidase inhibitors, inhibiting the enzyme.] Present in: almonds, anchovies, avocados, bananas, broad beans, butternut pumpkin, canned tuna, chicken skin, cheeses except cottage cheese, cola drinks, dark chocolate, fermented products, liver, meat pies, oranges , processed fish meat, sauces, sausages, sardines, smoked and seasoned meat, sauerkraut, spinach, stock cubes, tomato paste, tomato juice.
Antimony: No known function, very low toxicity, from foods stored in enamel vessels and cans.
Antioxidants: to counteract the cumulative damage of free radicals in aging etc, vitamins C , E, coenzyme Q10, bioflavonoids, selenium, zinc, sulphur compounds found in leafy green vegetables. Herbs: rosemary, red wine, green tea, black tea, dark red fruits such as cherries and blueberries.
Apples: are allowed to ferment into Apple Cider Vinegar a fermented fruit acid, which is loaded with pectin and minerals like potassium, chlorine, magnesium, sodium and calcium, seems to be a panacea. In addition it contains vitamins and beta-carotene. It contains pectins, carbolic acid, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols and acetates. The malic acid (dissolving uric acid from joints in gout) and acetic acid combat fungal and bacterial infections, relieves painful joints in arthritis, reducing toxins from body. It forms non-toxic acetic compounds useful in the treatment of insect bites and skin allergies. It helps in arthritis, strengthen arteries, relieves pain, heals wounds, reduce effects of varicose veins, reduces stress and tension. Raw, unfiltered, unpasteurized apple cider vinegar available from health food stores and diluted in water and with a little molasses may benefit hypoglycemic and diabetic patients. Apple Cider Vinegar is a traditional remedy that is used to help stimulate digestion.
Arginine: (Non-essential AA, but essential to children, made by Krebs Cycle –> Proline) helpful in angina pectoris, avoid in herpes, forerunner of nitric oxide which may relax blood vessel and reduce hypertension. Helps wound healing, Erectile Dysfunction, increases Glucose Tolerance, enhances insulin production, fat metabolism, excess may lead to catatonia: Gelatin, peanuts, almonds, bacon, Beer, Brazil nuts, buckwheat, carob, chicken-breasts, chocolate, cashews, barley, coconuts, dairy products, eggs, poultry, fish, hazel nut, lentils, linseed, meats, millet, oats, cooked oatmeal, oysters, peanut butter, green peas, chick peas, pecans, popcorn, raw cereals, raisins, rice (brown), sesame, skim milk, Beef, soy-beans, sunflower, turkey, walnuts, wheatgerm, white flour, whole-wheat bread. Also found in garlic and ginseng. Supplements: take on an empty stomach) not to exceed 30mg daily in case of schizophrenia (Excess could promote herpes, kidney and liver failure). See: Chaitow L Page 44
Arginine: & Lysine taken together in equal amounts may inhibit adverse effects of arginine (kidney or liver failure). A high lysine:arginine ratio food intake may improve a herpes simplex virus infection : Foods high in lysine:arginine ratio are fish, chicken, beef, lamb, milk, cheese, beans, brewer’s yeast and mug bean sprouts.
Foods high in arginine: lysine (to be avoided in herpes simplex virus infection) are: gelatine, chocolate, carob, coconut, oats, wholewheat and white flour, peanuts, soybeans and wheat-germ. Leon Chaitow page 54
Arsenic: (possibly essential in growth of pigs, rodents, poultry, methionine metabolism) fish, crustaceans, grains, cereals, contaminated water, fruits and vegetables contaminated with spray residue. Hazards: gut, skin, brain and nerves. Ascorbic acid: (see Vitamin C).
Asparagine: (Stabilizes nervous system), mainly in meat sources. Aspartame: used as artificial sweetener (NutraSweet, Equal) aspartyl-phenylalanine, 200 times sweeter than sucrose. Aspartame is a chemical compound consisting of 50% phenylalanine (PHE), 40% aspartic acid and 10% methyl alcohol (or methanol, wood alcohol). Methanol is readily converted to the immune suppressing toxic substance formaldehyde. Stable in solution for only a few months , when it breaks down. Avoid in phenylketonuria. Found in low-calorie desserts, gelatins, drink mixes and soft drinks. Reported to cause cancer, neurological, problems (hallucinations and dizziness), hyperactivity, migraines (see Fluhrer) skin rashes, mild depression, nausea, ringing in ears (tinnitus), insomnia, loss of motor control, changed taste, memory loss, blurred vision, don’t use during pregnancy. Not advisable for young children. Avoid in phenylketonuria.
Aspartic acid: (NEAA) (It aids cell function and function of RNA & DNA) Increases stamina, CFS may be due to low AA, helps remove excess ammonia from liver. Sprouting seeds contains abundance of aspartic acid.
Astaxanthin: is a natural carotenoid-type of antioxidant that is even more powerful than beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol, lycopene and lutein. Found in antarctic krill. The astaxanthin and this unique marine source flavonoid in Pure Krill Oil create a special bond with the EPA and DHA, allowing direct metabolism of the antioxidants; this makes the antioxidants in Pure Krill more bioavailable than other antioxidants on the market. Source Mercola.
Banana: would stand for instant energy. Even if you skip a meal, having a banana can meet your nutritional requirements. It is rich in iron and potassium while being low in salt. A banana would consist of 4 times the proteins, twice the carbohydrates, 3 times the phosphorous, 5 times vitamin A than an apple. It also has vitamin B6 and B12, vitamin C and magnesium. Let’s not forget the vital fiber content of bananas too. Known to be useful in treatment of Depression, Insomnia, and Constipation. HerbsCanCure.com
Beta carotene: Precursor to vitamin A. Apricots, asparagus, watercress, avocados, beet root greens, broccoli, Brussels sprout, rockmelon (cantaloupe), carrots, chard, chili peppers, yellow corn, cress, pink grapefruit, greens (mustard, turnip, beet, collard etc), kale, lettuce, butterhead or Romaine lettuce, mandarin oranges, mangoes, papayas, parsley, peaches, bell peppers, plums, pumpkins, tangerines, spinach, squash, winter squash, sweet potatoes, tomatoes and water melon. Conversion of beta carotene to vitamin A stimulated by thyroxine from the thyroid gland. (Almanac, 14) See: Carotenoids and Vitamin A.
Betaine: (trimethylglycine). is known to lower homocysteine levels that contributes to heart disease. It works closely together with SAM-e, B12 and folic acid. Homocysteine is a intermediate metabolite of methionine and is then converted to cysteine (or cystine): beets, broccoli, and spinach. Interestingly, many wines contain betaine, particularly less expensive wines that use beet sugar to increase the alcohol content. Some experts suggest that this may be part of the so-called “French paradox,” in which wine drinkers from France tend to have low rates of heart disease despite diets high in fat and cholesterol.
BHT: See Butylated hydroxyanisole.Bioflavonoids: (rutin, hesperidin, hesperidin, eriodictyol, quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, luteolin, apigenin) (There are 400 different plant flavonoid compounds, that have anti-cancer properties, antibacterial, antibiotic actions) Found in skins of fruit and vegetables, the pith of Citrus fruits, orange, lemon, lime, tangerine peels, fruits, grapefruit, grapes, prunes, apples, apricots, berries, cherries, onions, peppers, black currants, buckwheat, broccoli,papaya, rockmelon, plums, tomatoes, rose hip. Green growing shoots of all plants. Bioflavonoids also found in tea, coffee, red wine, jam, beer, cocoa and cola. Herbs: chervil, berries, elderberries, hawthorn berry, horse tail, rose hips, shepherd’s purse. Synergistic with vitamin C.
Biotin: In Mcgs, May be involved in synthesis of DHEA, helpful in moods muscles, hair growth, skin disorders, dermatitis, dandruff, immune system, reduce weight, anti-viral, anti-cancer (CM Reading (1979 & 1981, Medical Hypotheses reported by J. Sulima in SOMA Vol 20, 3, 6): Gooseberries, Yeast, dried Baker’s, Chicken liver, Sheep’s liver, Liver,lamb, Brewer’s Yeast (GTF), Beef liver, Pork liver, Calf’s kidney, Calf’s liver, Soybean Flour, Soya beans, Rice Bran, Soya beans, Kidneys (beef), Rice Germ, Rice polishing, EggYolks, Wheat Bran, Liver, Peanut Butter, Peanuts, roasted peanuts , Barley,without husk, Pecans nut, Grapes, dried, Smelt (small silvery fish), Pork liver, Egg, Whole egg, Oatmeal, Oat meal, Sardines, Blackeye Peas, Oats,rolled, Sardines, canned, Peas, seed, dry, Split Peas, Wheat Germ, Mushroom, cultivated, Mushrooms, Whole Wheat cereal, Whole wheat flour, Roe, Cod, fried, Textured Vegetable Proteins, Bran, Milk, dried skimmed, Lentils, Oats,without husk, whole grain, Brown Rice, Mayonnaise, Rice,unpolished, Avocados, Milk (whole dried), Oysters, Pears, Salmon, canned, Sardines in oil, Mungo beans, Black gram, Salmon, flesh, Calf’s heart, cooked Egg White, Egg Yolk, dried, French beans, String Beans, Spinach, fresh, Corn flour, Brie Cheese, Cheese, Camembert Cheese, Chocolate, milk free, Maize, whole grain, Wheat whole grain, Bananas. (Raw egg white contains the anti-biotin avidin, which prevents absorption of biotin)
Boron: Sodium borate:[RDA; 1-3mg. May prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis, arthritis & builds muscles, involved in estrogen and testosterone synthesis, enhances conversion of vitamin D to active form 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, involved in hydroxylation reaction (addition of -OH group)] High in fruits and vegetables depending on soil. Mushrooms, canned, Cucumber, Peas, seed, dry, Peanuts, roasted, Wheat Germ, Black tea, Almonds, roasted , Raisins, Prunes, Dried Grape, Sultanas, Avocados, Rose hips, Cod, Pecans nut, Walnuts, Figs, dried, Buckwheat, Oyster mushrooms, White cabbage. Meat and fish are poor sources.
Branched Chain Amino Acids: (BCAA), such as Leucine, Isoleucine and Valine most present in building of muscle tissues. BCAA are the forerunners of glutamine, a source of muscle energy in high athletic activities and protection against muscle injury. Dairy and meat are food sources as well as whey and eggs, lean meat, legumes or soy products. Helps in case of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig’s disease), and alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver. A supplement of BCAA may benefit people with a rare form of autism. See: Network Sept 2012
Bromide: Brominated vegetable oil (BVO): Used as an emulsifier in some foods and a clouding agent in many popular drinks. Bromate is the main ingredient which can poison a child. From fumigated grain products. Will replace chloride and accumulate, will also be taken up by thyroid gland instead of iodine, adverse effects on brain and thyroid function.
Bromelain: Enzymes found in the pineapple and related plants in the family Bromelidaceae, which hydrolyze proteins. Commercially available as byproducts of pineapples, usually from stems, used to tenderize meat, sausage casings. Similar enzymes found in figs (ficin) and pawpaw (Papain). Bromelain is an excellent supplement in the treatment of an acute attack of gout.
Butylated hydroxyanisole: (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) used to prevent fats and oils becoming rancid added to food packaging. In the diet of pregnant mice there was a decreased (50%) activity of brain cholinesterase, responsible for brain nerve impulses. Affects animals sleep, levels of aggression, weight. See also Tertiary butyhydroquinone (TBHQ). They are potentially cancer-causing reactive compounds.
Caffeine: (May cause migraines) coffee exceeding 4-5 cup a day, soft drinks, tea (herbal tea may be caffeine-free): Coffee (150 ml – 85-90 mg), Tea (150 ml – 40-60 mg), Coca (150 ml – 4 mg) Cola (180 ml – 15-23 mg), Dark chocolate (30g – 20 mg)
Calcium: (Approx > 100mg/100g) Milk and milk products may be a poor source because of high phosphorus content and milk allergy, use plain yoghurt, Milk, dried skimmed, Parmesan Cheese, Kelp, Gouda cheese 45% fat, Edam Cheese 30% fat, Cheddar Cheese, Cheese, general, Mozzarella Cheese, Camembert cheese, Blue Cheese, Dulse, Rose hips, Almonds, roasted , Collard leaves, Parsley leaf, Hazelnuts, Cob nut, Chocolate, Milk chocolate, cabbage, kale, yellow, green, or waxed beans, and salmon. Parsley , Soya beans, Soya flour, full fat, Figs,dried, Dandelion greens, Salmon, canned, Water cress, Dandelion leaves, Coffee, roasted, Egg Yolks, Pistachio Nuts, Brazil Nuts, Chives, Tofu, Goat’s milk, Spinach, fresh, Chick-peas, dry, Mungo beans, Black gram, Milk, skimmed, Sunflower Seeds, Yoghurt, Milk, Beet Greens, Milk, Cow’s milk, Yoghurt, reduced fat, White Beans, Buttermilk, Horseradish, Tofu, Watermelon, Broccoli, Spinach, Oysters, Walnuts, English, Bone meal*, Dolomite*, Calcium citrate*, especially in achlorhydria (low hydrochloric acid). Calcium should be in balance with magnesium: Foods that are high in magnesium include leafy green vegetables, whole grains, bananas, apricots, meat, beans, and nuts.
Calcium Supplements may increase risk for heart attacks source.
Calcium & Magnesium: Some foods that contain both calcium and Magnesium in approximately the correct ratio of 2:1 Kelp, Hazelnuts, Cob nut, Blackberries, Blackberries, commercial, Almonds, roasted , Parsley Root, Sweet cherries, Spinach, fresh, Tomato juice, Kohlrabi, Winter Squash, Kiwi Fruit, Pineapple, canned, Apricots, dried, Apple juice, French beans, canned, Soyabean sprouts, Strawberries, Apricots, Pears, canned, Wheat flour type 630, Grapefruit, Mullet, Tomato puree, Cucumber, Gooseberries, Grapes, natural, Red cabbage, Raisins, Dried Grape, Sultanas, Grapes, dried, White cabbage, Artichoke, Carrots, Currants, red, French beans, String Beans, Parsnips, Oysters, Lettuce, Rose hips, Chocolate, Milk chocolate
Calcium/Magnesium Ratio: Several researchers have used the magnesium/calcium ratio as an index of susceptibility of urine to form kidney-stones in patients. In general, patients with a urinary magnesium/calcium ratio of 0.7 is normal, whereas a value lower than 0.7 may be considered as stone-forming. The ratio is especially low in the Canadian “Kidney Stone Patients”, indicating inadequate magnesium intake. Source Calcium absorption is controlled by the parathyroid gland. Your parathyroid makes hormones called parathyroid hormones (PTH) which controls calcium absorption. But your parathyroid gland needs magnesium to make sufficient PTH for calcium absorption. When taking magnesium (1000 mg/d) it increases the absorption of both calcium and magnesium. Magnesium supplementation has the same effects as calcium-channel blockers. Jack Challem page 112 See also: Noise Sensitivity
Capric acid: See also Lauric Acid: One of the medium-chain of fatty acids, containing 10 carbon atoms (triglycerides of coconut oil and in goat and cow butter). It has antimicrobial and antiinflammatory activities.May normalize blood lipids, repair alcohol damage to the liver. Monocaprin formed from capric acid has also been shown to have antiviral effects against HIV and is being tested for antiviral effects against herpes simplex and antibacterial effects against chlamydia and other sexually transmitted bacteria. (Source: http://www.mercola.com/2001/jul/28/coconut_health.htm)Caprylic acid: See also Capric acid One of the medium-chain fatty acids, containing six carbon atoms, found in triglycerides of coconut oil, goat and cow butter and human fat. An antifungal agent used in the treatment of Candidiasis and other fungal diseases. Since it is readily absorbed in the intestines it needs to be taken in time-released or enteric coated caprylic acid formula to allow gradual release throughout intestinal tract.
Carbohydrates: (Low), Cooked soya beans, lentils, cherries, apples, pears, soy drink, yoghurt, low fat and full fat, bran cereal, canned pears, apple muffin, skim milk, fruit loaf, bananas, grapefruit, most whole grain breads, pumpernickel, all bran porridge (not instant), buckwheat, cracked wheat, barley, spaghetti, ravioli, tortellini, semolina, milk chocolate, pound cake, sustagen.
Carbohydrates: (Moderate), popcorn, sweet corn, dried fruit, sultanas, Muesli bar flavoured, wheat meal biscuits, Weet Bix, wholemeal bread, canned split pea soup, fresh apricots, paw paw, pineapple, canned peaches, raisins, rockmelon, ice-cream full fat.
Carbohydrates: (High), Corn chips, pumpkins, jelly beans, rice bubbles, baked potato, white rice, glucose, white bread, French baguette, brown rice pasta, tapioca, boiled new potatoes, parsnip, dates, lychees, watermelon, tofu frozen dessert, doughnuts, rice cakes, Pretzels, sports drinks. For Glycemic Index on the net:
Carotenoids: Carotenoids are a class of more than 600 naturally occurring pigments synthesized by plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. Carotenoids are yellow, orange, and red pigments synthesized by plants. The most common carotenoids in North American diets are alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene. Alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and beta-cryptoxanthin are provitamin A carotenoids, meaning they can be converted by the body to retinol (vitamin A). Lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene have no vitamin A activity. Sources: Beta carotene: Carrot juice, pumpkin, Sweet potato, Spinach, Carrots, Collards, Kale, Turnip, Pumpkin pie, Dandelion greens, winter squash, cantaloupe (melon). Lycopene: reduces risk of prostate cancer, found in Tomato paste, puree, Marinara sauce, tomato soup, raw tomatoes. For more information see: Linus Pauling Institute. See Vitamin A.
Carnitine: (NEAA) (Long-chain fatty acid used in transport system for energy production, oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria, removal of toxins from within the cell, involved in fat metabolism, reduction in obesity, improves neuromuscular disorders, muscular dystrophy, may reduce symptoms of Alzheimer’s Disease and diabetic neuropathy, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), may be beneficial in impotence (Erectile Dysfunction) together with lipoic acid). Synthesised in liver from lysine and methionine dependent on iron, vitamin C, thiamine (B1), pyridoxine (B6). it can also be synthesized from tryptophan. Not found in vegetable form. Major sources are muscle meat and organ meats & dairy products. Deficiency symptoms: confusion, heart pain, muscle weakness, obesity. Supply of carnitine enhanced by lysine ingestion. Vegetarians more likely to be deficient, they should eat grains, such as cornmeal, that have been fortified with lysine. Supplemental form: L-carnitine (preferred form), DL- carnitine, D-cartinine, acetyl–L-carnitne. The body needs lysine, methionine, vitamin C, iron, niacin, and vitamin B6 to produce carnitine. The compound L-carnitine, acetyl–L-carnitine and propionyl-L-carnitine have been used in alcohol withdrawal and craving. (Fox B (1999), Booze ruse, New Scientist, Dec 11, 9) The recommended dosage for ALC is 250 mg to 2 grams a day; like L-carnitine, ALC is is available in most supplement stores and through online sources. So when taking an ALC supplement, it’s a good idea to protect yourself with 100 to 600 mg of alpha lipoic acid daily. But carnitine in red meat may increase risk of atherosclerosis
Carnosine: A dipeptide beta-alanyl-histidine, found in muscle of most animals at concentrations of 0.25-0.35 % wet weight in pork and beef. Its function is unknown. It is said to have antioxidant activity. One study with rats (Boissonneault GA et als (1998), Nutr Res 18(4): 723-733) suggests that supplemental carnosine may have a protective role in mammary cancer and increase vitamin E levels.
Cellulose and hemicellulose: (Chemically modified forms of cellulose are used in food processing as fillers, stabilizers, emulsifiers, thickeners, foods formulated to be low in gluten) Apples, green beans, wax beans, beet root, bran, broccoli, Brussels sprout, cabbage, carrots, aubergine, whole-grain flour, pears, peas, peppers, radishes.
Cetyl Myristoleate: (CMO): An oil found in fish and organic butter, acts as a ‘lubricant’ and an anti-inflammatory, also known as as “Wulzen anti-stiffness factor”, used in arthritis, calcification of joints and as a pain killer.
Chia Seeds: Super food used by the ancient Aztecs. They have a high protein content, good source of fiber, help stabilize blood sugar levels in diabetics, helps in weight reduction, rich in calcium, and antioxidants keeping Chia seeds from going off, contain more iron than spinach, lowers cholesterol. Source: Natural News.com
Chlorophyll: (helps protect against cancer and certain forms of radiation) makes green plants, wheat grass, algae, seaweed. Green vegetables also contain vitamin C, B12, B6, A and K and folic acid stimulating red blood cells in bone marrow.
Choline: or Phosphatidylcholine: (Non-essential as body can produce it from serine. Important forerunner of acetylcholine (dependent on B5), a neurotransmitter that activates the Parasympathetic Nervous System. the calming branch of the Autonomic Nervous System. It may prevent manic phase in bipolar disorder but should be avoided in depressive phase). See: Treatment of Bipolar Disorder. Egg yolk, lecithin, organ meats, beef, chicken veal, turkey, green leafy vegetables, milk, soybeans, spinach, nuts, Brewers yeast, wheat germ, soybeans, fish, legumes, lecithin* contains 10–20%. The body uses phosphatidylcholine and vitamin B5 to form acetylcholine. Phoshatidylcholine is available as a supplement. For more information see: here and here.
Chromium: Sensitizes insulin receptors to insulin in diabetes and hypoglycemia and helps to break down protein and fats. Reduces LDL fats. May be useful in weight reduction. Brewers yeast* (not torula) 1-3 tsp per day,Whole Wheat, Molasses, Brewer’s Yeast (GTF), Broccoli, turkey meat, liver, oysters, Corn on the cob, Buckwheat, Apple Sweet Potatoes, Liver, Black tea, Brazil Nuts, Cinnamon, Gouda cheese 45% fat, Edam Cheese 30% fat, Beef rump, shellfish, mushrooms, brewer’s yeast and whole grains,Calf’s liver, Whole wheat bread (GTF), Maize, whole grain, Fresh Chilli, Rye Bread, Dates dried, Honey, Wheat Germ, Fish, Peanut butter, White Beans, Egg Yolks, Green Peppers, Paprika, Onions, Chicken for roasting, Hazelnuts, Cob nut, Oats without husk, whole grain, Parsnips, Goat’s milk, Barley,without husk, honey, grapes, raisins and whole-grain cereals, milk, dried skimmed, Chromium enriched Brewers yeast, or Chromium picolinate (200mcg per day, in diabetes 3x200mcg pd). Cooking acidic foods in stainless steel cookware can cause chromium to leach into the food and provide added dietary chromium.
Citrulline: (NEAA) promotes energy, stimulates immune system metabolized from L- , component of the urea cycle metabolized from arginine, aspartate and ornithine, found in onions and garlic. Important to heart health, cardiovascular disorders and immune system disorders. Found mainly in liver. See also Arginine.
Cobalt: Cobalamin: (A constituent of B12) Organ meats, kidney, oysters, clams, poultry, milk.
Coenzyme Q10: ( CoQ10: Q10: or Ubiquinone) Functions as oxygen transfer coenzyme and part of the system across which electrons flow in the mitochondria of cells in energy production. This is a non-essential nutrients derived from phenylalanine and tyrosine, meaning the body can produce this from other nutrients with the help of vitamin B6. Important in heart muscle, used in cardiovascular disease, angina, high blood pressure, in cancer chemotherapy, enhance immunity, duodenal ulcers. Stimulates insulin production in diabetes and may stabilize blood sugar levels. Synthesis in body, depends on vitamin E. Available in supplemental form (50-100mg per day with food) and used in treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome, angina pectoris and other heart problems. Your body requires the reduced form of Co Q10 (called Ubiquinol) to fight free radical production and to boost your energy. See diagram. Ubiquinol is now available as a supplement. Dr Mercola. (Other references). Sources: Vegetables are a poor source. Good sources of CoQ10: Beef, Fried, Herrings, marinated, Chicken fried, Soybean oil, Canola oil, Rainbow trout, Peanuts roasted, Sesame seeds roasted. Supplements available for adults from 30-100 mg/d, therapeutic doses for adults 100-300mg/d, even higher doses for Parkinson disease under medical supervision. CoQ10 is fat soluble and best absorbed with fats in a meal. This is one reason why lipid lowering drugs may lower CoQ10 levels. Take with vitamin E as this helps preserve Q10. Some cholesterol lowering drugs interfere with the synthesis of CoQ10. Warning: don’t take with Warfarin (Coumarin) anti-clotting drug. For a good article see; Linus Pauling Institute See also: COENZYME Q10.
Comfrey: Traditionally, comfrey has been used to treat broken bones, sprains, arthritis, ulcers, burns, acne, and female reproductive problems. Medical science has proved that the herb has an effect on healing bones. This confirms the use of one of comfrey’s popular folk names, boneset. Common home remedies include ointments for external sores, teas and infusions for lung and bone ailments, and poultices for sprains, sores, burns or blisters. Comfrey is an astringent, anti-inflammatory, and hemostat. It aids in cell growth and absorbs toxins from the intestines, regulating intestinal flora. The plant contains antioxidant vitamins C, A, and E, and sodium, potassium, manganese, magnesium, protein, phosphorus, and B vitamins. Allantoin, tannins, saponins, and beneficial alkaloids can also be found in comfrey. See also: Comfrey
Conjugated Linoleic Acids: See Omega-6 fatty acids.
Copper: (Essential co-enzyme in Superoxide dismutase which protects against hydrogen peroxides) (may be a cause of migraines in excess. Essential antioxidant in the retina of eye) found in organ meats such as calf and beef liver, oysters, clams, crabs, cashews, sunflower seeds, hazelnuts, almonds, peanut butter, lentils, mushrooms, chocolate, Brazil nuts, pickled cucumber, lobster, avocado, walnuts, pecans, cod liver oil, banana, dried bean, soy beans, soy lecithin, peas, pulses, whole wheat, prunes, prawns (shrimp) and most seafood, legumes, molasses, potatoes, organ meats, poultry, game, chicken, grain products, dark raisins, beer, cider, coconut, black pepper, thyme, paprika, Bay leaves, Bone meal*. Sources at Linus Pauling Institute. (Drinking water from copper piping should also be considered a source of copper) RDA: 1.5-3 mg p/d. Wear a clean copper bracelet. Zinc/ copper ratio should be 12:1. Excess molybdenum may interfere with copper metabolism and could be beneficial in Wilson’s Disease. PMID:7749256 See: Good Source Jane Higdon April 2003. And Linus Pauling Institute.
Creatine: A derivative of the amino acids glycine and arginine, important in muscle as a store of phosphate for resynthesis of ATP (Adenosinetriphosphate). This is a molecule of energy required in all biochemical reactions. Creatine is produced naturally in the human liver, pancreas, and kidneys. It is concentrated primarily in muscle tissues, including the heart. Animal proteins, including fish, are the main source of the 1–2 grams per day of dietary creatine most people consume. Supplements in the form of creatine monohydrate are well absorbed and tolerated by the stomach. Studies have shown that creatine supplementation has benefited people suffering from Muscular Dystrophy in doses of 5-20 grams per day. Has also been used by high performance athletes, especially with a diet low in red meat. In Rheumatoid arthritis. Some reports have claimed that creatine supplementation may boost brain performance, increase memory and mental tasks. Source.
Cruciferous vegetable: broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts rich in Vit C, carotene, B9 (Folate), fibre, anti-cancer.
Cyanogenic glycosides: Chemical compounds contained in foods that release hydrogen cyanide when chewed or digested. Human poisoning from CGs is rare. CGs present in apples, apricots, cherries. peaches, plums, quinces, taro, mangos, peanuts, particularly in seeds. Sometimes lima beans, cassava and bitter almonds may result in cyanide poisoning.
Cysteine and glutathione: (NEAA) (contains sulphur and inactivates free radicals) is a precursor of glutathione (a tripeptide of glutamate, cysteine & glycine), a major antioxidant. A selenium dependent enzyme – glutathione peroxidase together with glutathione attacks free radicals. Source: Egg, meat, dairy products and some cereals. Take with Vit C as a precaution against kidney-stone and bladder-stone formation.
Cystine & cysteine: (NEAA) [Also N-acetylcysteine (or NAC) (more effective than cysteine) used in radiation sickness and chemotherapy]. Cystine consists of two molecules of cysteine. Cysteine is unstable form but easily converted from one to the other. Cysteine is a precursor to glutathione, a substance used in detoxification in the liver. Damage by alcohol drugs and cigarette smoke in brain and liver. Important in the production of collagen in nails, hair, bones, skin. Cysteine is formed from methionine. Should be taken with vitamin C and requires B6 as coenzyme. Caution: dangerous to diabetics (diabetes), may inactivate insulin production. Cysteine production depends on adequate levels of methionine. Supplements L-cysteine 1000 mg three times daily for a month in chronic illness. Rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, cancer, post operative healing, severe burns, bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis. Found in Soyabeans, brewer’s yeast (GTF), cashews (nuts), Brazil Nuts, peanuts (roasted), wheat germ, wheatgerm, peas, seed, dry, peanut butter, peanuts, sole fish, horse mackerel, sunflower seeds, wheat bran, oatmeal, oat meal, oats rolled, almonds, roasted (nut), chicken breasts, poultry, turkey, pork liver, oats without husk, whole grain, milk dried skimmed, pork muscles only, mullet, turkey young with skin, meat, chicken liver, sheep’s liver, whole egg, eggs, crayfish, small lobster, oatmeal, rolled oats, beef, sirloin steak, pork chops, chicken for roasting, salmon, flesh, tuna, flesh, mutton.
D-Mannose: at a dose of 1-1.5 g in water has been found to be effective in the treatment of bladder (cystitis) and kidney infections caused by E. coli. D-Mannose is a sterioisomer of glucose found in cranberries. Source –> page 11, & Chia-Suel Hung et als. (2002) It is also found in blueberries, birch/beech wood. D-Mannose powder has no known adverse reactions when taken in conjunction with medications. Source. An alternative is to take six capsules of concentrated cranberry for 13 months. Delicious Healthnotes. People with multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injuries are at risk of developing recurring Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) which may lead to excess antibiotic medications with ominous implications for the growth of anti-resistant bacteria like the Golden Staph (MRSA).
DHA or DHEA: (dehydroepiandrosterone) is one of the hormones produced by the adrenal glands, it circulates in the bloodstream as DHEA-sulfate and is te forerunner of other hormones. A synthetic form is available as a supplement in tablet, capsule, liquid and sublingual form used in the treatment of Addison’s Diseae, depression, Erectile dysfunction, HIV, Osteoporosis Schizophrenia, Ulcerative colitis, Alzheimer’s, Chronic fatigue syndrome, Immune function, Menopause, Weight loss. See also Fishoil
Eicosenoic acid N 20:1: a monounsaturated fatty acid found in Seeds of rape, mustard, macadamia nuts, reported in oils of menhaden, Atlantic cod and beluge or white whale oil blubber. See for more food details at NDBEnzymes: Proteins that speed up metabolic reactions. They are extremely sensitive to heat and therefore to obtain enzymes from the diet, one must eat raw food. Avocados, papayas, pineapples, bananas, mangoes, sprouts are rich in enzymes. Enzymes from papaya and pineapple – papaine & bromelain – are proteolytic enzymes. See also Superoxide dismutase (SOD).
Epigallocatechin gallate: (EGCG), polyphenols found in green tea having the potential to fight AIDS, Diabetes, Cancer, Alzheimer’s Disease. But you may have to drink about ten cups a day to reap the benefits. See: Mercola Essential Amino Acids: Histidine (Partial), Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Valine. (Non-essentials: Alanine, Arginine, Asparagine, Aspartic acid, Cysteine, Cystine, Glutamic Acid, Glutamine, Glycine, Ornithine, Proline, Serine, Tyrosine).
Essential Fatty Acids: See Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty acids are essential because the body is unable to produce them. Both are supplied in the diet by linseed oil (flaxseed oil), walnut oil. Linoleic acid (C18:2 w6) is converted in the body to gammalinolenic acid (GLA) -> dihomo-gammalinolenic acid (DGLA) and then to prostaglandins series E1 (PGE1), which are anti-inflammatory substances. Alpha-Linolenic acid (C18:3 w3) is converted to eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) -> prostaglandins series E3 (PGE3). Eicosapentaenoic acid appears to be more effective in treating depression (PMID: 20439549 ). (They also inhibit the inflammatory prostaglandins. Some people lack the first enzyme – delta-6-desaturase – in these conversions and may have to take Evening Primrose Oil (EPO)* or fishoils (Max-EPA)*, see fishoils below. The conversion can be blocked by saturated fats, cholesterol, sucrose (high insulin), trans-fatty acids (margarine), alcohol, aspirins, salicylates, NSAIDS, and deficiencies of zinc, B6 & magnesium. For natural sources see Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids below. Lockwood p.124. For a full explanation see Essential Fatty Acids at Linus Pauling web site.
Essential Fatty Acids: High omega 3 PUFA (more than 1 gram/100grams fish); Atlantic salmon, Mackerel, Mullet (sea), Canned red salmon (in brine/water), Canned mackerel (in brine/water) Canned sardines (in brine/water), Smoked salmon. Medium omega 3 content (more than 0.5 gram/100grams fish); Trout, King George Whiting, Blue Grenadier, Bluefin Tuna, Golden Perch. Low omega 3 (more than 0.1 gram/100grams fish); Shark, Whiting, Flathead, Bream, Flounder, Garfish, Gem fish, Gurnard, Leather jacket, Ling, John Dory, Mullet (red), Scallops, Oysters, Snapper, Nunnugai, Luderick, Canned tuna (in water).
Fats: Butter, margarine vegetable oils, fats in meat, whole milk, milk products, nuts and seeds. Fibre: Insoluble (for lower bowels) whole grains, bran, wheat, wheat bran, rye, rice, corn, cellulose, Soluble (pectin and psyllium) (for lowering cholesterol, aiding diabetes & obesity) in fruits, dried peas, beans, barley, oats, gums (guar, xanthan, locust bean) mucilages (psyllium) and pectins, fibre-resistant starch, green bananas or the fibre supplements – slippery elm, oat, rice, barley bran. Along with fibre in your diet, adding foods that provide the correct bowel bacteria also helps. These are foods such as sauerkraut, miso, acidophilus, yoghurts and other traditional fermented foods.
Fishoils: Rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), found in cold water fish, also found in some nuts & docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) protective against problems associated with heart disease, depression, (EPA in fishoil the most effective in schizophrenia), Alzheimer’s Disease. Oils of Herring, shark, cod liver, sardine, tuna, salmon, mackerel, bream, eel, anchovies, hake, halibut liver oil, Manhaden fish oil from Brevoortia patronus, B. tyrannus from Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic seaboard of USA See Essential Fatty Acids
Flavonoids: Flavonoids are a class of water-soluble plant pigments found in coca, tomatoes, grapes, green tea and black tea to a lesser extent. Flavonoids are broken down into categories, though the issue of how to divide them is not universally agreed upon. One system breaks flavonoids into isoflavones, anthocyanidins, flavans, flavonols, flavones, and flavonones. Some of the best-known flavonoids, such as genistein in soy and quercetin in onions, can be considered subcategories of categories. Although they are all structurally related, their functions are different. Flavonoids also include hesperidin, rutin, citrus flavonoids, and a variety of other supplements. They all have antioxidant activities. See Bioflavonoids.
Fluoride: (Electrically charged form of fluorine) (Naturally the fluoride content of water ranges between 0.05 and 14 ppm. 1 pmm in water is said to protect against dental caries. Deposited in bone, teeth, excreted in urine, associated with dental health, small amounts prevents dental caries, osteoporosis, arteriosclerosis, excess causes fluorosis. Boron is known to counteract adverse effects of fluoride toxicity. Wide distribution: Black tea, Walnuts, Pork liver, Lobster, Crawfish, Calf’s kidney, Beef, liver, Kidneys, beef, Eel, smoked, Cashews, Peanuts, roasted, Butter, Barley,without husk, Spinach, fresh, Parsley leaf, Soya flour, full fat, Whole egg, Almonds, roasted , Wheat whole grain, Coffee, roasted, Pike, river, Herring, vinegar cured, Radishes. Fluoridation of water with sodium fluoride 1.0-2.0 ppm
Folic acid: or (B9): (deficiency may be responsible for birth-defects: spina bifida, anencephaly, encephalocoele, depression) Deficiency may lead to high levels of homocysteine contributing to heart disease. see Betaine & B12. Also necessary in production of SAM-e. (Coenzyme for single carbon transfer, purines, thymine, haemoglobin) Brewer’s Yeast (GTF), Beef, liver, Cowpeas, dry, Wheat Germ, Blackeye Peas, Rice Germ, Soybean Flour, Chicken liver, Chick-peas, dry, Liver,beef, Sheep’s liver, Liver,lamb, Soya beans, Calf’s liver, Soya beans, Pork liver, Red wine, Watercress, Bran, Wheat Bran, Soya flour, full fat, White Beans, Kale, Brussels Sprouts, Brussels sprouts, Kidney Beans, Beef, liver, Kidneys, beef, Peanuts, Egg Yolks, Soyabean sprouts, Green Peas (fresh), Peas in pod, Peas, seed, dry, Parsley leaf, Mung Beans, Spinach, fresh, Lamb’s lettuce, Mungo beans, Black gram, Pork liver, Lima Beans, fresh, Navy Beans, Garbanzos, Cauliflower, Asparagus, boiled drained, Lentils, Leeks, Corn flour. Daily supplement 500mcg for at least one month before and during first three months of pregnancy. Several drugs interfere with folate; contraceptives, alcohol, nicotine, anticonvulsants chemotherapeutic, anti-malarial and antibacterial agents. Excess folate consumption (in excess or 15mg per day) may lead to night mares in some poeple. Studies on Folic acid & depression See also Folic Acid at Linus Pauling Institute.
Food colorings: Blue; Red 3; Green 3; Yellow 6; Have been linked with cancer in animal studies. Blue 1 and 2 found in beverages, candy, baked goods and pet foods. Red 3 used to dye cherries, fruit cocktails, candy, baked goods, may cause thyroid tumors in rats. Green 3 in candy and beverages linked to bladder cancer. Yellow 6 in beverages, sausage, gelatin, baked goods and candy have been linked to tumors of the adrenal glands and kidney.
Food allergies: Look out for nuts, peanuts, wheat, soy, eggs, fish, shellfish, chicken, pork, beef, tomato, carrot, celery, mushroom, orange, pineapple, kiwifruit, garlic, basil and mustard. See also Allergies.
Fructo-oligosaccharides: FOS: are naturally occurring sugars that have beneficial effects as food ingredients. FOS are considered to be a health enhancing food ingredient , found in banana, garlic, honey, barley, onion, wheat, tomato, rye and brown sugar. See Dietary Fibres at Linus Pauling Institute.
Fructose or laevulose: (Also known as fruit sugar, a 6-carbon monosaccharide. A constituent of the disaccharide sucrose (table sugar, glucose + fructose). Fructose 1.7 times as sweet as sucrose. Transported to the liver where it is converted to energy via pyruvate & acetyl CoA. Fructose was used in diabetes mellitus before insulin was discovered as it elicits a lower glucose and insulin response. But beware of High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS) which is sold as an alternative sweetener (no sugar) in soft drinks, which May be responsible for obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, production of ‘bad” cholesterol and heavy metal, intoxication. Source Global Healing Center.
Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA): formed from glutamic acid. Decreases neuron activity and together with niacinamide and inositol prevents anxiety. May help in epilepsy, hypertension, enlarged prostate, attention deficit disorder ADD. Garlic: 600 to 900 mg a day of a standardized garlic extract may help lower cholesterol and prevent hardening of the arteries
Glutamine: Glutamic Acid can be converted into either glutamine or gamma-butyric acid or GABA and—vice versa—can be formed from both GABA and glutamine, via the enzyme Glutamine Synthetase dependent on pyridoxine-5-phosphatase (active form of Vitamin B6), manganese and others. This trio ensures smooth running of brain reactions. Glutamic acid is an excitatory neurotransmitter that acts as brain stimulant by increasing the firing of neurones. GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that creates a calming effect. Glutamine is the only one that readily pass the blood-brain barrier and is a primary source of brain fuel. Glutamate is the salt form of glutamic acid. For their function see: Braveman Eric R p.269. It is stored in skeletal muscles. Formed from BCAA. Under stress released from muscles. Helpful in concentration, memory, intellectual performance, alertness, improves mood, as well as treatment of arthritis, autoimmune diseases, fibrosis, intestinal disorders, “leaky gut syndrome”, peptic ulcers and connective tissue diseases such as polymyositis, scleroderma, radiation sickness. May enhance mental functioning. Glutamine decreases alcohol and sugar cravings. Helps in gut diseases like ulcers, ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s Disease. Helps in wound healing. When AAs are broken down, they release nitrogen, which can form ammonia and is toxic to the brain. Glutamine contains 2 atoms of nitrogen (forerunner of ammonia -> urea -> urine). Glutamine available as a supplement synthesized from glutamate. The usual dose is 4000-5000 mg from 1-3 times a day. Dietary glutamine easily destroyed in cooking. Sources: Richest source in cabbage juice, used in ulcer treatment. Highest content, pork, poultry, eggs, dairy protein, wheat germ, oats & avocados, Gelatin, Parmesan Cheese, soy flower, dried skimmed milk, Chedda cheese, raw spinach and parsley. Avoid in cirrhosis of the liver, kidney problems, Reye’s syndrome (Encephalopathy following a viral infection). See also the effects of Glutamine on Benign Prostatic Enlargement here. Glutathione: (High levels are found in the lens of the eye) A tripeptide consisting of glycine, glutamic acid and cysteine involved in oxidation-reduction via the selenium containing enzyme glutathione peroxidase. Cysteine derived from methionine. Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) is believed to increase glutathione content of liver. Glutathione is also called a master antioxidant.
Seer also: Notes below
Gluten: (A mixture of two proteins: gliadin and glutelin. Intolerance to gliadin fraction of gluten responsible for coeliac disease) Dietary treatment should always be supervised by health professional as there many hidden sources of gluten. Coeliacs should avoid protein portion of wheat, rye, oats (low in gluten), barley, spelt, kamut, all canned and packaged foods, bread crumbs, bread seasonings, sausages and luncheon sausage meats, sorghum, triticale (a cross of wheat and rye), buckwheat & millets are usually also excluded (including milk & milk products which are difficult to digest): substitutes are rice, maize, corn, potato flour, rice flour, sago, soya bean flour, corn flour (but some ‘corn flours’ are made from wheat flour, check label!) Gluten-free wheat. Papain supplement (500-1000 mg) may help to digest wheat gluten. Infusion of Slippery elm (Ulmus fulva) and meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) may sooth the bowels and reduce likelihood of diarrhoea. Also consider zinc and vitamin K deficiency (Alfalfa). Consider gluten sensitivity in schizophrenia, dermatitis herpetiformis, urticaria, epilepsy.
Glycine: NEAA, the simplest of all AAs, has sweet taste, often mixed with saccharin as sweetening agent. It is often given as dimethylglycine (DMG). Is used in liver for detoxification as part of glutathione. Supplementation may enhance immune system, boost mental acuity, reduce blood cholesterol & triglycerides, improve oxygen utilization, may help control epileptic fits, normalize blood pressure, blood glucose levels (Diabetes). It enhances the effects of neurotransmitters in the brain and is helpful in schizophrenia. Also involved in bone formation. Derived from ->methionine + serine (from glycolysis), converted from threonine. Sources: Gelatin (highest), wheat germ, horse mackerel, hake, soya products, peanuts, salmon, beef, chicken, trout, pork, mutton, calf’s liver, kidneys, mullet, eel, Lima beans, fish, halibut, herring, lobster, lemon sole, beans. Avoid in gout.
Goitrogens: (Inhibitors of the thyroid gland (interferes with iodine), to be avoided in hypothyroidism); Kale, turnips, Brussels sprout, broccoli, rape and rapeseed, raw cabbage, cauliflower, Kohlrabi, mustard seeds, cassava root, sweet potato, lima beans, soybean, peanuts, pearl millet, pine nuts and millet, rutabagas, soy flower. Cooking deactivate the goitrogens in these foods.
High-Cholesterol foods: Eggs, beef liver, shrimp or prawns, spare ribs (pork), Cheddar cheese. But high cholesterol levels may be due to excess production by liver, regardless of food sources. 80% produced by liver, 20% from diet. (Wikipedia) Oxidation of cholesterol causes atherosclerosis, therefore use antioxidants, especially vitamin E. Use: Garlic
Histamine: (released by leucocytes and derived by decarboxylation of the amino acid histidine causing dilation of blood vessels), also found in small amounts in cheese, beer, chocolate, sauerkraut, salami, sausage meat and red wines (which may cause headaches).
Histidine: (EAA in growing child, NEAA in adults) (Converted to histamine with B3 niacin and pyridoxine B6), maintains myelin sheaths, auditory dysfunction due to neural changes, protects against radiation, removes toxins, helps in arthritis, with niacin and B6 helps in sexual arousal: Skim milk, peanuts, peanut butter, beef, poultry, Turkey, chicken breast, veal, pork, ham, calf’s liver,cheddar cheese, cottage cheese, boiled eggs, corn flakes, beans, pecans, brown rice.
Homocysteine: is an intermediate product in conversion of methionine to cysteine and is toxic to the body. It requires B6, and possibly folic acid, B2 & B12 for conversion to cysteine. High levels of homocysteine may contribute to atherosclerosis. Supplemental Betaine (trimethylglycine) can reduce homocysteine levels.
Hyaluronic acid (hyaluronate): This is part of the glycosaminoglycans of connective tissues thought to be deficient in various connective tissue diseases such as retinal detachment, glaucoma, fibromyalgia, arthritis, osteoarthritis. Sources: “starchy root vegetables”– satsumaimo, a type of sweet potato; satoimo, a sticky white potato; konyaku, a gelatinous root vegetable concoction; and imoji, a potato root. “The second source of hyaluronic acid I can think of would be to eat animal parts known to contain a lot of hyaluronic acid. I make broth for soup from boiled animal parts that contain a lot of skin, tendons and joints. This is the one food that helped my fibromyalgia more than anything else. ” Source
Indole-3-carbinol: A substance found in in the brassica family, containing alkaloids of the glucobrassicin group in vegetables such as cabbage, broccoli, Brussels Sprouts, Cauliflower and Bokchoy in the treatment of cancer of the cervix. (ICNR211.16)
Inosine: precursor to adenosine found on Brewer’s Yeast and organ meats, also available as a supplements. May be useful in Multiple Sclerosis, but not much scientific support support.
Inositol: Helps regulate mood swings. Sources: Liver, Whole grains, whole wheat bread, citrus fruits, milk, Brewer’s yeast, molasses, milk, nuts, vegetables, dried Lima beans, organ meat, raisins, fruits, grapefruit, lecithin*, lime, green beans (unshelled), Rockmelon (Cantaloupe), (diets high in unsprouted seeds and grains are rich in phytates, which may prevent proper absorption of many trace elements. By leavening the grains or germination prior to use, phytates are eliminated and inositol is liberated into food product). Important cofactors of inositol are folic acid, B12, B6, choline, betaine, methionine. Consumption of large amounts of caffeine may cause deficiency. Patients with diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney failure, and multiple sclerosis (MS), exhibit impaired production. Inositol is an attractive addition to treatment of psychiatric disorders. Einat et al. (2001), Gina Link (Oct 2004). “These results suggest that inositol has therapeutic effects in the spectrum of illness responsive to serotonin selective re-uptake inhibitors, including depression, panic and OCD, and is not beneficial in schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s ADDH, autism or ECT-induced cognitive impairment.” Levine, J (1997) Inositol in the treatment of depression, Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients Oct 2004, J Potokar et al 781, Frank J Ayd 523, AF Schatzberg et als. 634 For Inositol depletion hypothesis, especially important in Bipolar Disorder and administration of lithium see EJ Nestler et als., 360
Inulin: a fructan found in bananas, onions, wheat and artichokes is a soluble fibre that may be useful in lowering cholesterol among hypercholesterolaemic patients. Davidson MH et als (1998) in ICNR References
Iodine: (Absorbed as iodide, taken up by thyroid gland under control of thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], synthesis of thyroxine regulates cell oxidation) (RDA 140 mcg/day, should be 200mcg in pregnancy) See also Iodine Factsheet Sources: Kelp, Green Peas (fresh), Mullet, Haddock, Oats rolled, Cod , French beans, String Beans, Herring oil, Lobster, Crawfish, Sardines in oil, Herring, vinegar cured, Clams, Seafood, Shrimps, Prawns, Shrimps, Prawns, canned, Haddock flesh, Oysters, Halibut, Salmon, canned, Tuna, flesh, Mackerel, Horse mackerel, Herring, Sardines canned, Milk dried skimmed, Salmon, Vegetables, Sardines, Meats, Mackerel smoked, Liver beef, Mushroom cultivated, Sole, fish, Tuna canned, Pineapple, Broccoli, Peanuts roasted, Peas, Pork liver, Beef, liver, Dairy products, Peanuts, Kale, Spinach, fresh, Egg Yolks, Peanuts without skins, Whole wheat bread (GTF), Cheddar Cheese, Black tea, Cereals, Bread, Cashews, Pork muscle only, Egg, Whole egg iodized salt, Morton Light Salt substitute*, Nutritional yeast*, potassium iodide*. Foods that interfere with the uptake of iodine are: cabbage, kale, Brussels sprout, cauliflower, broccoli, Kohlrabi, turnips, rutabaga, rapeseed, brown (Indian), black, or white mustard, garden cress and radish, soybeans, skins of peanuts, cassava root, almonds, and cashews.
Iron: (1mg required per day) Haem iron from organ meats and meats, lean meats, tongue, liver, eggs, fish, poultry; blackstrap molasses, cherry juice, green leafy vegetables, beans, clams, dried apricots, raisins, peaches, poor in dairy products, Desiccated liver*. [Ferrous sulphate or gluconate 300mg orally 3xpd]. Absorption of iron can be improved with consumption of vitamin C, citric acid; and inhibited by calcium, phytates, phenols, tea drinking and soy protein. May be benefical in non-anaemic fatigue.
Isoflavones: Plant pigments providing antioxidants (daidzein, genistein and equol) & lignans (enterodiol, enterolactone and matairesinol, coumestrol, daidzein, genistein, formononetin, biochanin) Phytooestrogens (similar to oestradiol, may prevent hormone-dependent cancers) found in leguminous plants, especially soy beans, soy flower, miso, tofu, soy bread, soy milk, soy sauce, peas, kidney beans, berlotti beans, haricot beans, butter beans. Equol also in cow’s milk from red clover. See also Lignans. For a criticism of non-fermented soya products see Dr Mercola.
Isoflavonoids: See Isoflavonones Isoleucine: (ISL), Leucine: (LEU) and Valine: (VAL) are branched-chained amino acids (BCAA), that work together to protect muscle and act as fuels. They enhance energy, valuable to athletes, increase endurance and help in healing and repairing muscle tissues. Isoleucine and leucine stabilize and regulate blood sugar levels. Deficiency of leucine may lead to symptoms of hypoglycemia. They are recommended in healing after surgery. They promote the healing of bones, skin, muscle tissues, increase growth hormone production. When taking supplemental forms of these amino acids they should be taken in the ratio of ISL:LEU:VAL= 1:2:1. In Maple syrup urine disease there is a blockage in the metabolism of these branched amino acids which raises the a-keto acids. They need to be placed on a low branched amino acid diet.
Isoleucine: (EAA) (Branched-chain AA – others leucine and valine) (Haemoglobin formation, regulates blood sugar levels, muscle metabolism, repair tissue damage, involved in chronic mental and physical illness): almonds, cashews, beef, chicken, chickpeas, lentils, fish, soy protein, soybean, eggs, liver, cottage cheese, baked beans, milk, rye, almonds, cashews, pumpkin seeds, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds, most seeds. In supplemental form should be balanced with other branched-chain AA leucine and valine. 2mg leucine & 2mg valine for each 1mg of isoleucine.
Kaempferol: see Quercetin these flavonoids are found in fruits and vegetables and are protective against gastric cancer. Keampferaol is found in onions and broccoli.
Lactose: (Lactase – enzyme present in the brush border of intestinal mucosal cells – hydrolyzes lactose to glucose and galactose. Also known as milk sugar, (may cause migraines). In lactose intolerance try buttermilk, cottage cheese, sour cream, yoghurt.
Lauric Acid: lauric acid has been recognized for its unique properties in food use, which are related to its antiviral, antibacterial, and antiprotozoal functions. Monolaurin formed from lauric acid is the antiviral, antibacterial, and antiprotozoal monoglyceride used by the human or animal to destroy lipid-coated viruses such as HIV, herpes, cytomegalovirus, influenza, various pathogenic bacteria, including listeria monocytogenes and helicobacter pylori (responsible for peptic ulcers), and protozoa such as Giardia lamblia. Some studies have also shown some antimicrobial effects of the free lauric acid.Found in coconuts, palm oil and butter. 50% of coconut oil consists of lauric acid. (Source: http://www.mercola.com/2001/jul/28/coconut_health.htm) See also Caprylic acid.
Lead: May be in produce grown near highways with vehicles using petrol, metal cans, >50 mcg per kg of body weight affect brain, blood bone and kidneys. May replace zinc.
Lecithin: Contains about 13% phosphatidyl choline, a precursor to an important neurotransmitter acetylcholine, A B vitamin partially water-soluble, hence can disperse lipids, fats, cholesterol. Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter that activates the Parasympathetic Nervous System, opposing the actions of the Sympathetic Nervous System (the flight/fight branch of the ANS) triggered by adrenaline. People taking niacin for high triglycerides should also take lecithin 1,200 mg each meal. Lecithin can be taken to reduce symptoms of mania in bipolar disease. But it should not be taken during the depressive phase. See: Treatment of Bipolar Disorder and Hypo NL June 2001 page 10. See: Found in soy, egg, brewer’s yeast, grains, legumes, fish, wheat germ. Egg lecithin may be more effective for those suffering AIDS, herpes, chronic fatigue, immune disorders. See Choline.
Leucine: (EAA) (a branched-chain amino acid – others are isoleucine and valine and they should be taken in balance) (Lowers elevated blood sugar levels): corn (low in isoleucine), beef, baked beans, chicken, soya protein, soy-bean, fish, cottage cheese, liver, whole wheat, brown rice, almonds, Brazil nuts, cashew nuts, pumpkin seeds, Lima beans, chick peas (Garbanzos), lentils, corn.
Lipoic acid: (Also known as alpha-lipoic acid, alpha lipoate thioctic acid), An (nonessential) enzyme cofactor (together with vitamin B1) involved with conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA, present in all cells. A powerful antioxidant useful in treatment of depression, diabetic neuropathy, nerve dysfunction, increase blood flow to nerves, helps neural regeneration, improve distal nerve conduction rates, increase in glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity.. Helps to stimulate the pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme complex. Helpful in impotence together with carnitine. (See Lacatae/pyruvate metabolism is impaired in type 2 diabetes Korad T et als (1999) Good sources yeast and liver and spinach. Difficult to obtain therapeutic amounts from food, use supplements instead. found in liver, potatoes, broccoli and skeletal muscle. Alpha lipoic acid has no effect on levels of fasting serum glucose or HbA1c. See Salazar.
Lutein: & zeaxanthin: are carotenoids plant pigments found in xanthophylls such as in spinach, recommended in treatment of eye diseases: highest in avocado, corn, kiwi, red grapes, green peppers, carrots, oranges and especially rich in raw egg yolk (the deeper the colour of the egg yolk, the more it contains lutein and zeaxanthin), pumpkin, kale, collard greens and many other yellow to red vegetables and fruits. It may improve vision in retinitis pigmentosa. It is an antioxidant that slows cancer development, stimulates immune function and protects against the risk of age-related Macular Degeneration in the eye. (AMD), helpful in glaucoma, cataract and various eye diseases. (Therapeutic dose for lutein is 15 mgs per day).
Lycopene: Red carotenoid pigment found in tomato, pink grapefruit, water melon and palm oil and some in watermelon, rose hip and guava. Also in lobster and crab. A potent antioxidant against cancer – of the breast, prostate, pancreas – with singlet oxygen quenching ability twice as effective as beta-carotene. Stored in testes, adrenal glands and prostate, together with beta-carotene in kidney, lung and liver tissues. Especially abundant in tomato (the redder the better, cooked tomatoes more readily absorbed). Bioavailability greater in tomato paste.
Lysine: (EAA): For clinical significance see Wisegeek. In herpes choose high lysine/arginine ratio, deficiency may lead to fatigue, dizziness and anemia, production of carnitine: pork, fried liver, skim milk, flounder (baked), Parmesan cheese, tuna, canned in oil drained, soya flour, poultry, turkey, Edam cheese, sirloin steak, trout (raw), chicken (breasts), chicken breasts, beef (roast), Mackerel, pickled herring, salmon (canned pink), pork (roasted) Cheddar cheese, fish, cod (canned), Halibut, raw, round medium fat veal, veal roast, haddock, raw, prawns (cooked), liver (cooked), Lima beans, chicken liver, lamb (leg), cottage cheese, chickpeas dry-raw, pork, (loin), pumpkin seeds, liverwurst, pork, ham, lamb (rib), pistachios, peanuts (roasted), peanut butter, lentils (cooked), boiled egg (raw), soybeans (cooked), cashews, wheatgerm, pork, cured, bacon medium fat, almonds, sesame seeds, oatmeal, rolled oats,Vitamin C protective of lysine. Anti-viral therapy (Herpes) 500-1500mg* spread throughout day. Forerunner of carnitine. See also: Herpes virus infection. See also: See also Lysine at Wikipedia.
Magnesium: is involved with more than 300 metabolic reactions, such as energy production, synthesis of essential molecules, bone and membrane formation, cell signaling; deficiencies play a significant role in various illnesses. (Source). Magnesium is required for the active transport of ions like potassium and calcium across cell membranes. Through its role in ion transport systems, magnesium affects the conduction of nerve impulses, muscle contraction, and normal heart rhythm and may be deficient in arrhythmia.(Source). Found in wheat germ, wheat bran, banana, apricot, avocado, peanuts, peanut butter, cashews, seafood, fish, whole grains, corn, apple, dark-green vegetables, spinach, molasses, legumes, almonds and Brazil nuts, cashews, pecans, hazel nuts, Lima beans, sesame seeds with hulls, millet & wheat, rolled oats, walnuts, wholemeal flower, dried figs, dried apricots, beetroot greens, brown rice, dates, Cereals, soybeans, buckwheat, meat, Bone meal*. Dolomite * which also include calcium and other trace minerals.(see NHS 205, p16 for percentage content). Magnesium deficiency can be responsible for Noise Sensitivity .
MALIC ACID: A class of acid known alpha-hydroxy acids or AHA. Common fruits such as apples, grapes and cranberries are rich sources of malic acid; this acid can also be found in many types of vegetables. May be helpful in such conditions as hypoxia, which is a failure to deliver oxygen to muscles. Used by many athletes to enhance their performance. it has been used in the treatment of fibromyalgia, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and complaints of aches and pain.
Manganese: ( RDA; 2-5mg. Co-enzyme in Superoxide dismutase which protects against hydrogen peroxides, intestinal enzyme function, synthesis of thyroxine, glutamine synthesis, otolith formation, bone & cartilage , nerve transmission, regulation blood sugar, immune system, excess associated with violence, black tea, hazelnuts, pecans, Brazil nuts, almonds, walnuts, barley, coconuts, rye, buckwheat, raisins, carrots, corn, oats, soya beans, spinach, blueberries, whole grains, green leafy vegetables, broccoli, legumes, split peas (dry), chickpeas, polished rice, beets, nuts, orange, apple, pineapples, egg yolks, milk, kelp.
Menaquinone: Vitamin K.
Mercury: (Removal of dental mercury amalgam fillings results in health improvement. 14% were found to have allergic symptoms, 89% of patients reported improvements) interacts with selenium causing brain and kidney damage. Inorganic mercury miners may be exposed to, mercurial fungicides, contaminated water -> fish, near paper mills, from shark. “Chelated mineral sources of calcium, iron, zinc, selenium and manganese may protect against mercury poisoning. Vitamin E works with selenium in particular to neutralize mercury. Molybdenum may decrease the accumulation of mercury in kidneys by increasing its urinary excretion levels. Chlorella and Spirulina may help detoxify organic and in organic mercury. As mercury results in lower bowel flora levels, probiotic supplementation may be helpful.” Fleisher MA
Metabisulphite: (Sulphites, Sulphur dioxide, sodium bisulphite may cause adverse reactions in asthmatics) Preservative used in many foods to prevent browning: used in dried fruits (but not raisins, sultanas, currants or prunes), fruit bars, dried vegetables, instant mashed potatoes, commercial prepared potatoes (chips, crisps etc.), French fried potatoes, pickled onions, pickles, pastries, crackers, mushrooms, frozen pizzas, sauerkraut, wine, cordials, beer, Champagne etc, chicken loaf, Devon, frankfurter, sausages, sausage mince, uncooked fresh prawns (shrimp), fruit yoghurt, cheese pastes, dessert toppings, flavouring essences, jams, vinegar-containing items, salad dressings, olives, tomato puree, tomato paste, frozen pizzas, sweet pastries. Also used in processing gelatin, beet sugar, corn sweeteners, food starches. David H Watson, 159
Methionine: (EAA) (contains sulphur and inactivates free radicals)Gives rise to taurine. Methionine converted to cysteine, which is a component of glutathione involved in detoxification. Coenzymes required B6, B12, folic acid. Also essential in synthesis of SAM-e when combined with a molecule of energy (ATP), a natural antidepressant produced in the body. Found in: bean, eggs, pork, fried liver, Brazils, Parmesan Cheese, skim Milk, flounder baked, tuna canned in oil drained, Edam Cheese, lamb, trout (Raw), sesame seeds, salmon canned pink, soya flour, turkey, Fish Cod (canned), pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds, Pepitas, sesame seeds, sirloin steak, chicken breasts, roast beef, onions, garlic, lentils, soybeans, yoghurt, cooked prawns, cooked liver, calf liver, cottage cheese, chicken liver, boiled eggs, roast veal, pistachios, cashews, walnuts, peanuts, chickpeas, almonds, Lima beans, yoghurt, buttermilk, brown rice.
Migraine Headaches: Foods associated with migraine include foods containing the amino acid tyramine (red wine, aged cheese, smoked fish, chicken livers, figs, some beans), chocolates, nuts, peanut butter, fruits (avocado, banana, citrus fruit), onions, dairy products, baked goods, meats containing nitrates (bacon, hot dogs, salami, cured meats), foods containing monosodium glutamate (an additive in many foods), and any processed, fermented, pickled, or marinated foods. See Dr Joachim Fluhrer’s article in one of our Newsletters in PDF format on Migraine and Headaches at page 3.
Molybdenum: Component of enzyme xanthine oxidase, which aids in breakdown of purine into uric acid, also a coenzyme in sulfite oxidase which detoxifies sulfite to inert and harmless sulfate in treatment of sulfite sensitivity. Cancer of esophagus, male potency. Also known to assist in detoxification of SO2 important to asthmatics) Sources depends very much on content in soil. Organ meats (liver, bone, kidney), Chinese cabbage, Cabbage, Leguminous seeds, French beans, boiled & young carrots, soya flour, dried dates, red cabbage, wheatgerm, whole-grain cereals, pulses, unprocessed buckwheat, lima beans, milk, beans, dark-green vegetables, oats, sunflower seeds, lentils (see also Pfeiffer, 1978, 119). (Needed with iron to make haemoglobin) Supplement: sodium molybdate. Caution against high levels of uric acid (gout). Not to exceed 15 mg per day. Excess molybdenum may interfere with copper metabolism. Excess molybdenum has been found to result in copper deficiency in grazing animals (ruminants). See also Molybdenum in Linus Pauling Institute. Molybdenum and zinc in treatment of Wilson’s disease, PMID:7749256.
Mono- or polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA): fatty acids with only one double bond like oleic acid. Olive oil and canola oils (rapeseed oil) are effective in protecting against oxidation of serum cholesterol. Corn, cottonseed, olive, safflower, sesame seeds, soybean, sunflower. See Oleic Acid.
Monosodium glutamate: (MSG is a flavour enhancer in fast foods and Chinese meals, may cause headaches, flushing of the skin, tightness of the chest, heart palpitations, nausea) try vitamin B6, before ingestion, otherwise avoid. David H Watson,156
Monoterpene: Such as Limonene: Monoterpenes in the treatment of cancer of breast, liver, lung and skin. Limonene is found in essential oils of lemons, oranges, grapefruit, tomatoes and other vegetables and herbs such as caraway, dill, bergamot and various other members of mint family. Larger doses required for therapeutic purposes at dose 8mg/2/day. Perillyl alcohol (or POH) is potentially more effective leading to remission in animal models by 25% of the dose of Limonene.
Mustard Family of vegetables: Reputed to help fight cervical cancer according to Dr Jonathan V Wright (http://www.agora-inc.com/reports/NAH/WNAHD112/), mustard, broccoli, cauliflower, bok choy, cabbage and brussels sprouts.
NAC: n-acetyl-cystein: nutritional supplements worth considering for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). It is derived from cysteine. May normalize in insulin resistance, lowers homocysteine associated with heart disease, improve fertility. consult doctor if you are taking metformin, don’t take with nitroglycerin. (Source)
NADH: (Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) a coenzyme made from the vitamin nicotinic acid (niacin) that readily accepts and gives up hydrogen, and is useful as a supplements in cases of adrenal exhaustion (fatigue), Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s, depression and other health problems. NADH is produced in the body and is found in food sources such as beef, poultry, fish and yeast. One pound of steak is needed to obtain 2.5 mg. NADH
Nattokinase: is an enzyme isolated from a Japanese food called natto, made from boiled and fermented soybeans. Nattokinase has been shown to prevent and dissolve blood clots and may also help prevent hardened arteries, heart attack, stroke, angina, and senility.
Niacin: See Vitamin B3
Nickel: (Constituent of protein nickeloplasmin, associated with thyroid hormone, high in RNA) whole grain bread, oats and cereals, chocolate, peas, fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts, cooked dried beans and peas. High meat diet low in nickel.
Nightshade: Nightshade family: Tomatoes, potatoes, tobacco, eggplant, capsicum, chilli, pepper: (Alternatives: sweet potatoes, cauliflower, pumpkin, marrow, choko, lettuce, celery, cucumber and other vegetables)
Nitrites: (Used as preservative in cured meats, may provoke migraines. Nitrites form nitrosamines in gastrointestinal tract and are known carcinogens) bacon, ham, smoked fish, bologna, hot dogs, salami, sausages. David H Watson, 158
Octacosanol: Derived from wheatgerm oil (10 pounds of wheat required to produce 1,000 mcg). Improves glycogen storage in muscles, oxygen utilization, improves endurance, high altitude stress, muscle fatigue, muscular dystrophy, neuromuscular disorders, reduces blood cholesterol.
Oleic acid: (Oleic acid or more properly 9-Octadecenoic acid is a fatty acid containing 18 carbons and only one double bond.) A cholesterol lowering agent. A monounsaturated acid found in almonds, pecans, cashews, peanuts and avocados, meat and especially in olive oil and rapeseed oil.
Olestra: a synthetic fat added in some potato chip brands, can cause diarrhea, abdominal cramps and gas. May inhibit vitamin absorptions from fat-soluble carotenoids that are found in fruit and vegetables.
Oligoantigenic diet: is a diet that is hypoallergenic or is known to be free of food sensitivities. It consists of lamb, chicken, potatoes, rice, banana, apple and a brassica family vegetable. The patients stays on this diet for at least one week up to a month. Food sensitivity will disappear by the 5th or sixth day. Murray & Pizzorno (1990), 397
Omega-3 and/or fish oil: (See also Essential Fatty Acids for more details) salmon, mackerel, herring, sardines, sable fish, shark, lake trout, fresh tuna, whitefish and anchovies. Others halibut, blue fish, rock fish, rainbow, sturgeon, turbot and sea trout, tuna, ocean perch, bass, hake, pollock, smelt and mullet. Among shellfish, oysters supply fair amounts of oil. Plant sources: soybean, legumes, rapeseed oils, walnuts, chestnuts, flax seed (linseed), green leafy vegetables. Tasmanian Mutton Bird.
Omega-6 Essential Fatty Acids: Also know as Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA)(Precursor of GLA->DGLA->Prostaglandins Series 1 (anti-inflammatory), Flaxseed oil, safflower seeds oils, sunflower seed oils, wheatgerm, corn oil, Walnuts, Evening Primrose Oil (by-passes defective enzyme – delta-6-desaturase – and contains GLA).Also found in butter, beef and whole milk, but only when these foods come from grass-fed cattle. Therapeutic doses between 2-3 gram per day for weight reduction, atherosclerosis, but discuss with doctor. OPC: (Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins), or Tradename Pycnogenol(s) is a group of colourless bioflavonoids with powerful antioxidant activity. It is said that OPCs have a antioxidant potency 15 times that of vitamin C and 42 times that of vitamin E. Repairs collagen and elastin damage, counteracts inflammation and allergies by inhibiting histamine. Used in ADHD. Found in woody parts, barks and leaves of many plants. Rich sources: grape seeds, pips and skin, red wine, pine bark, peanut skin, Sudan cola nuts, hawthorn fruit, Ginkgo biloba, seeds of honey locust pods, Chinese wisteria and Bilberries.
Ornithine: derived form arginine and vice versa shares many of arginine’s properties and stimulates thymus gland to produce Lymphocytes. Supplement of arginine and ornithine to be taken on empty stomach with juice or water, no proteins. Avoid in pregnancy, schizophrenia more than 30 mg/day,
Orotic acid: Orotate (An intermediate in the synthesis of pyrmidines – nitrogenous compounds – also called vitamin B13) Used in treatment of Multiple Sclerosis: Organically grown root vegetables and whey. Orotic acid is utilized by body in metabolism of folic acid and B12.
Oxalate foods: Oxalic Acid: (To be avoided by kidney stone formers) asparagus, beans, beet green, beetroot tops, broccoli, carrots, celery, chard, chocolate, cocoa, collard greens, cucumbers, grapefruit, instant coffee, kale, mustard greens, parsley, peanuts, pepper, rhubarb, spinach, sweet potatoes, tea, turnip green
Pangamic Acid: (B15): (Active ingredient; dimethylglycine DMG) Pangamic Acid or Calcium Pangamate or B15 high in cabbage also reduces high histamine levels and may be beneficial in schizophrenia. May lower glucose levels. Brewer’s yeast, rare steaks, whole brown rice, sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds and sesame seeds, whole grains.
Pantothenic Acid (B5): (Widely distributed in all foods. Antistress hormone, converts fats, CHs, proteins into energy, involved in neurotransmitters, coenzyme A, depression, fatigue, anxiety, tingling in hands, deficiency may be responsible for gout) Yeast, Torula, Calf’s liver, Sheep’s liver, Beef, liver, Brewer’s Yeast (GTF), Chicken liver, Pork liver, Sheep’s kidney, Calf’s kidney, Beef, liver, Kidneys, beef, Egg Yolks, Mungo beans, Black gram, Milk, dried skimmed, Calf’s heart, Peanuts, Heart, Brains, all kinds, Wheat Bran, Lobster, Crawfish, Mushrooms, Peanuts, roasted, Peanuts. salted, Mushroom,cultivated, Tongue, beef, Soybean Flour, Split Peas, Blue Cheese, Peas, seed, dry
Para-aminobenzoic acid: (PABA): (Constituent of folic acid helps in assimilation of B5, sunburn, skin cancer, formation of RBCs, deficiency may lead to depression, fatigue, GI disorders, irritability, patchy areas of skin) Dried Lima beans, liver, kidney, molasses, mushrooms, spinach, Brewers yeast, raisins, rockmelon, organ meats, wheat germ, whole grains, bran, brown rice, yoghurt, molasses, green leafy vegetables, whole grains. Sulpha drugs may cause def.
Pectin: (Pectins slows down absorption of foods after meals, good for people with diabetes and reactive hypoglycemia. Removes metals and toxins, reduces side-effects of radiation therapy, lowers cholesterol, gallstones, reduces risks of atherosclerosis and strokes, reduces plasma fibrinogen) Apples, currants, bananas, beets, green beans, cabbage, cauliflower, carrots, citrus fruits, oranges, grapes, oatmeal, okra, plums, potatoes, sesame seeds, squash. Soft fruits like strawberries, raspberries and cherries are low in pectin. Fruits low in pectin: apricots, cherries, pineapples, and strawberries.
Phenylalanine: (EAA and forerunner of catecholamines (image)- key neurologic chemicals – such as tyrosine, dopa, dopamine, nor-epinephrine, –> epinephrine (Adrenaline), related to brain function, dilation and constriction of blood vessels, stimulation of muscles etc.) Pork liver (fried), soybeans, soy products, dry skim milk, cottage cheese, fish, meat, poultry, almonds, peanuts, Brazil nuts, pecans, pumpkin seeds, sesame seeds, Lima beans, chickpeas, lentils. (As supplement may suppress hunger if taken one hour before meals with juice or water, mood elevator). These should be avoided by phenylketonurics, metabolic disorder characterized by absence of phenylalanine hydroxylase, thus accumulating phenylalanine in body. To be taken with caution in case of hypertension. To be avoided in pre-existing pigmented melanoma. Lofenalac is a protein hydrolysate (milk substitute) a complete food ex, up to 4,500 mg pd), L-Phenylalanine – is used as an antidepressant (1500 mg per day).
Phosphatidylserine: is a phospholipd component in the cell membrane, usually distilled from bovine brain, but because concerns about BSE is also available from soybeans. Used in sports medicine to speed up recovery of injuries, improve well-being, combating exercise-induced stress. Can enhance moods and might be beneficial for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (HDAD). Found in Bovine brain, Atlantic mackerel, Chicken heart, Atlantic herring, Eel, Offal, Pig’s spleen and kidney, Tuna, White beans. Source: WIKIPEDIA
Phosphorus: (Bone formation, absorption of glucose & glycerol, phosphorylation, transport fatty acids, energy metabolism, buffer system) (Low levels may be associated with panic attacks) Fish, meats, poultry, egg yolk, milk and milk products, legumes, nuts, whole-grain cereals, broccoli, rhubarb, Bone Meal.
Phylloquinone: Vitamin K
Phytate: (binds with proteins, calcium, iron and may be useful in hemochromatosis, lowers glycaemic index good for diabetics) found in navy bean flour, Soyabean, barley, guar gum, oat bran, tofu. Low phytate content: apricots, bananas, grapefruit, kale, peaches, pineapple, prunes and spinach.
Phyto-oestrogen: (Used in menopausal symptoms: usually isoflavones, phytosterol, saponins, or lignans, in italics most popular) Plant sources when oestrogen is low as in post menopause or too high as in premenstrual tension: alfalfa, apple, chaste tree, dill, fenugreek, flaxseed, rice, sarsaparillas, wild yam (Dioscorea villosa), dong quai (Angelica sinesis), liquorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Chinese or Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng), unicorn root (Aletris farinosa), black Cohosh (Cimocifuga racemosa), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), false unicorn root (Helonias opulus), soya sprouts, celery family, parsley, red clove sprouts, flaxseed oil. Warning: Soy products may have anti-thyroid isoflavones increasing the risk of hypothyroidism. (Anti-thyroid isoflavones from soybean: isolation, characterization, and mechanisms of action, Divi RL; Chang HC; Doerge DR, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079, USA, Biochem Pharmacol, 1997 Nov, 54:10, 1087-96)Piceatannol: a byproduct of resveratrol
Polyphenolic flavonoids: Found in fruits and vegetables, tea, cocoa. See: Epigallo-catechin gallate.
Potassium: (Foods that exceed 100 times the ratio Potassium:Sodium); Sweet corn, Wheat Bran, Buckwheat flour, Elderberries, black, Coffee, roasted, Soya flour, full fat, Bananas, White Beans, Pumpkin, Brazil Nuts, Hazelnuts, Cob nut, Watermelon, Black tea, Cassava tuber, Walnuts, Blackcurrants, Currants, black, Pecans nut, Avocados, Currants, red, Wheat Germ, Peaches, Orange Juice, fresh original, Green Peas (fresh), Peas in pod, Chives, Apricots, Honeydew Melon, Peanuts, roasted, Rhubarb, Lima Beans, dry, Raspberries, Plums, Gooseberries, Oranges, Cowpeas, dry, Apricots, dried, Orange juice, unsweetened product, Asparagus, Potatoes, Grapefruit Juice, fresh original, Grapefruit, Cress, Eggplant, Winter Squash, Cauliflower, Green peas, boiled, Lamb’s lettuce, French beans, String Beans, Grapes. See: Potassium lowers Blood Pressure
Potassium: (B) (From Werbach, Healing through Nutrition, page 280), Fruits (Especially dried) apricots, bananas, rockmelon (cantaloupe), figs, grapes (raisins) peaches, plums (prunes): Seeds, pumpkin, squash: Nuts, almonds, peanuts, soya beans: Vegetables, avocados, beetroot, broad beans, gruyere, potatoes, spinach, squash, tomatoes: Wheat, wheat bran, wheat germ: Others, Brewer’s yeast, skimmed milk.
Pressor amino-rich foods: [to be avoided in rheumatoid arthritis and schizophrenia, (Reading 1975, in Hypo Newsletter Dec 95, 5)] Curry, chilli, sauces, spices, herbs, chokoes, zucchini, capsicum, mustard.
Proanthocyanidins: see Pycnogenols
Prostaglandins: see Essential Fatty Acids
Protein: Meats, fish, poultry, soybean products, eggs, milk and milk products, cheese, whole grains. Adelle Davis: Brewer’s yeast, skim milk powder, wheat germ, soy flour, and cottonseed flour. Let’s Eat Right to Keep Fit (39-41).
Protein: Plant sources: pulses (peas, beans, lentils, soya products), grains (wheat, oats, rice, barley, buckwheat, millet, pasta, bread), nuts (brazils, hazels, almonds, cashews), and seeds (sunflower, pumpkin, sesame).
Pterostilbene: Compound found in Blueberries and grapes found to help lower cholesterol. regulate blood sugar levels (diabetes II), similar in action as Resveratrol.
Purines: (Excess sources of purines to be avoided in gout) Purines are converted to uric acid in the liver and normally excreted via the kidneys. People with gout seem to lack an enzyme, uricase, that breaks down uric acid into very soluble compound. Alcohol and deficiency of vitamin B1 block the excretion of uric acid, which may crystallize and lodge in joints. Other deficiencies that can provoke attacks are: Vitamin B5, Vitamin A, vitamin E. Foods high in purines are anchovies and sardines, herring, meat gravies and broths, mushrooms, shrimps, (prawns), scallops, mussels, asparagus, sweetbread, red meats, liver, organ meats such as kidneys, legumes, brain, and poultry. Yeast is very high in purines as in yeast extracts (Marmite Vegemite). Foods lowest in purine includes eggs, fruits, cheese, nuts, sugar, gelatin and vegetable other than legumes. Drink plenty of clean water. Celery extract has uric-acid lowering properties, and may be useful in reducing pain in gout. Avoid meats. Avoid glycine.
Pycnogenols: Proanthocyanidins: Pycnogenol trials have already shown that supplements of the extract may improve blood circulation, relax artery constriction, may be helpful in erectile dysfunction (ED) (120 mg per day of Pycnogenol@), and reduce platelet activity – all with a minimum of side effects. Bioflavonoids also known as Procyanidolic oligomers (PCOs) see above, or leukocyanidins, or oligomeric proanthyanidins (OPC) are powerful antioxidant also involved with collagen and elastin synthesis, anti-inflammatory, useful after face lift surgery and deep vein thrombosis, diabetic retinopathy, inhibits lipogenesis, found in French maritime pine park extract, Grape seeds skin (Vitis vinifera), bark of Landes pine, bracts of Lime tree and leaves from Hazelnut tree, peanut skins, Sudan cola nuts, hawthorn fruit, cherries, blue berries, grapes, Bilberries, cranberry, Ginkgo biloba, seeds of honey locust pod, Chinese wisteria.
Pyridoxine: vitamin B6.
Quercetin: and Kaempferol About 180 quercetin glycosides have been identified. Plasma quercetin half life of about 25 hours). (A bioflavonoid inhibits aldose reductase in synthesis of sorbitol from glucose, has been used to reduce Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)). A yellow, crystalline, flavonoid pigment found in oak bark, in fruits, the juice of lemons, fruit juices, asparagus and other plants. High in fried onions, apples, apricots, broad beans,French beans, broccoli, cherries,grapes, red wine, strawberries and other berries such as cranberries, lingonberries, bilberries and black currants; black and green tea. It is used to reduce abnormal capillary fragility and treatment of gout, oedema, strokes. A flavone found in onion skins, tea, hops and horse chestnuts. (Suggests 400mg quercetin three times a day for prostate cancer, but not confirmed by studies)
Resveratrol: Polyphenolic compounds has antioxidant, anti-platelet, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic effects. Acts as an oestrogen receptor agonist and interferes with arichidonate by reducing the levels of leukotrienes and prostanoids. Researchers found that resveratrol is processed by the enzyme CYP1B1, which is found in a variety of different tumors. This converts resveratrol into piceatannol, a closely related phytoestrogens with known anticancer activity. Previous research by the team has shown that this process is restricted to the tumor itself, limiting the toxicity to the cancer cells and serving to selectively destroy them. Useful in angina, heart disease, atherosclerosis, anticancer properties. Resveratrool may also preserve the pain-relieving effect of morphine. Medscape Nov 20 2012 Found in grapes, especially rich in Muscadine grapes, red wine, mulberries, Japanese Knotwood root (Polygonum multiflorum, richest source), Smilacis chinae rhizome, Arctocarpus lakoocha, raisins, red grapes, tea and high in peanuts and cocoa. Fresh grape skin contains about 50 to 100 micrograms of resveratrol per gram, while red wine concentrations range from 1.5 to 3 milligrams per litre. See also: Pterostilbene. See also: Mercola. 24 Studies relating to oxyresveratrol found in herbs, Linus Pauling Institute notes of resveratrol
Riboflavin: (Vitamin B2) (Involved in oxidative reactions of fats, carbohydrates & amino acids. Deficiency results in cracked skin at corner of mouth, fissures of lip and tongue, seborrhoeic accumulation around nose and eyes and migraine headaches) Brewer’s yeast, green vegetables, bran, liver, tongue, organ meats, egg yolk, legumes, nuts, milk, yoghurt, cheese, pulses. Alcohol consumption and contraceptives may cause a riboflavin deficiency. Hypovitaminosis B6 may often occur with riboflavin deficiency, because riboflavin is needed as a co-enzyme in the formation of the biological active version of vitamin B6 – PLP or P5P. See here.
Rubidium: Can act as substitute for potassium. More toxic on low potassium diets, with effects on growth and reproduction. Sources soya beans and beef.
Rutin: (Vitamin P) Disaccharide derivative of quercetin, containing glucose and rhamnose, found in grains, tomato stalk and elderberry blossom. May be useful in glaucoma.
Salicylate:-containing foods. Apples, apricots, blackberries, cherries, cucumbers, grapes, oranges, peaches, plums, raspberries, strawberries, tomatoes, and BHT and BHA. See: Feingold Salicylate and aspirin sensitvity.
SAM-e: (S-Adenosyl-Methionine) – SAM-e is a natural substance found in every cell of your body. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of hormones and synthesis of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, melatonin (for sleep), dopamine and adrenaline. It can be synthesized from the combination of the amino acid L-Methionine, and and a molecule of energy called ATP, vitamins folic acid, vitamin B12, & trimethylglycine (Betaine) provided all the ingredients are present & performing. Saponin: containing foods: (Lowers cholesterols) Baked beans, lentils, soya beans, alfalfa, fenugreek.
Selenium: [Part of enzymes glutathione peroxidase (antioxidant) and thyroxine deoxyginase] Important antioxidant depending on soil. May increase insulin efficiency. Dates, tuna, herrings, smelt, oysters, Brazil nuts (5 Brazil nuts per day, contains 840 mcg per ounce), nuts, eggs, poultry, butter, apple cider vinegar, scallops, barley, lobster, prawn (shrimp), beef, Brewer’s yeast, wheat germ, garlic, onions, bran, broccoli, whole grains, pork, chicken, milk. (US wheat content higher than European wheat content (Church SM et als. 1998, Dietary intake of selenium in the UK, Proc Nutr Soc 57, 162A)]. See also: Ulrike Peteres, Yumie Takata (2008)
Serotonin: (Produced from tryptophan in presence of vitamin B6 and magnesium and precursor to niacin (B3) may reduce pain in migraine) Carbohydrates increase tryptophan absorption by provoking the pancreas to secrete insulin. Insulin increases the relative concentration of tryptophan by causing the tissues to soak up competing amino acids from the blood. But raised tryptophan,and therefore raised serotonin levels may also trigger migraines. Thus experiment with tryptophan.
Silicon: (Trace mineral essential in formation of bone, cartilage, hair, nails, connective tissue, biological cross-linking agent in connective tissue, counteracts the effects of aluminium may prevents Alzheimer’s disease) Oats, eggs, Barley, without husk, Parsley leaf, Turnip, French beans, String Beans, Hazelnuts, Cob nut, Bananas, Wheat whole grain, Leeks, Blueberries, Bilberries, Huckleberry, Peas, seed, dry, Cucumber, Blackcurrants, Mandarins, Tomatoes, ripe, Tomato, Lettuce, Strawberries. In supplemental form: magnesium trisilicate or silicon dioxide, Vegetal Silica from Horsetail. Horsetail plant, Horsetail powder. Toxicity to the lungs from inhalation of silica dust.
Sodium: (In descending order) Salt, MSG, Olives, green marinated, Black Pudding, Herring, vinegar cured, Asparagus, boiled drained, Coffee powder, Caviar, Gouda cheese 45% fat, Blue Cheese, Salami, Sausage, Edam Cheese 30% fat, Corn flakes, Brie Cheese, Camembert cheese, Cheddar Cheese, Corn flour, Liverwurst, Liver sausage, Sausage, liver, Ham, Parmesan Cheese, Bread rolls, wheat, Asparagus, canned, Cola drinks, Mushrooms,canned, Soya beans, Cottage Cheese, Wheat whole grain, Eel, smoked, Salmon, canned, Seafood, table salt, baking powder and baking soda, celery, dill pickles, pretzels, sauerkraut, soy sauce, dried beef, ham, smoked bacon, processed foods. Soups: beef and chicken broth, black bean, chicken gumbo, cream of potato, Manhattan clam chowder, Processed fish: canned sardines, tuna, kippered herring, smoked salmon.
Sodium Chloride: commonly known as salt is an additive to improve flavor. Too much salt can cause high blood pressure, heart attack, stroke and kidney failure. See Potassium
Sodium nitrate: (Also called Sodium Nitrite), a preservative, coloring and flavoring added to ham, bacon, hot dogs, luncheon meals, smoked fish, coned beef have been linked to cancer and should be avoided.
Strontium: (Non-radioactive strontium): Most plant foods, dairy, (Brazil) nuts, seawater. Kelp contains 0.1% strontium. Strontium is a constituent of bone and teeth, available as strontium lactate, depending on soil water, bone meal, can be replaced in bone by radioactive strontium from fall-out, interacts with calcium and may affect growth. See: Acu-Cell Nutrition
Sulphur: (constituent of methionine, cell protein, activate enzymes, high energy sulphur bonds in energy metabolism, detoxification reactions) Fish, eggs and egg yolk, meats, milk, cheese, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, nuts, legumes. See also: Sulfur-rich food helps to detoxify . See also: Sulphur and Cardiovascular Disease
Superoxide Dismutase: (SOD), An enzyme neutralizing superoxides. Depending on zinc, copper & manganese. The Cu/Zn SOD protects the cytoplasm. Mn SOD protects the mitochondria of the cells that contain the cell’s’ genetic information. Occurs naturally in barley grass, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, wheatgrass and most green plants. Also available as SOD pills. Foods rich in zinc and manganese and copper are: Calf’s liver and other livers, cashews, oysters, black tea (also contains chromium), wheat bran, Brazil nuts and pecan nuts, wheatgerm, walnuts, millet, peanuts, peas, oats, rolled oats.
Taurine: (NEAA) (contains sulphur and inactivates free radicals) Synthesised from methionine and cysteine in liver in presence of B6. Estradiol depresses formation of taurine, -> women need more. Maintains cholesterol solubility. High levels during migraine. Taurine + zinc has anticonvulsive effects in epilepsy. May reduce blood sugar levels and lessen the need for insulin in diabetics. Improves intelligence in mental retardation. Reduces blood clotting in diabetics. Light deprivation may cause taurine deficiency via low levels in pineal & pituitary glands. Human milk high in taurine, but cow’s milk poor. Other sources eggs, fish, meat. Vegetables poor. For vegetarians, synthesis in the body is crucial. Supplement: 500mg L-taurine twice a day on empty stomach. If used longer than a month mix with other amino acids.
Tertiary butyhydroquinone (TBHQ): Chemical used together with BHA or BHT as preservatives sprayed on the inside of cereal and cheese packages. Said to be toxic and affect childhood behavioural problems. Found in sweet bars, candy bars, baking spray and fast foods.
Thiamine: (B1): Brewer’s yeast, wheat germ,whole grains, blackstrap molasses, brown rice, organ meats, pork liver, meats, fish, poultry, egg yolks, legumes, potatoes, nuts, rice bran*, broccoli, Brussels sprout, Dulse, kelp, most nuts, oatmeal, plums, dried prunes, raisins, Spirulina, watercress. Herbs: alfalfa, bladder wrack, burdock root, catnip, cayenne, chamomile, chickweed, eye bright, fennel seed, fenugreek, hops, nettle, oat straw, parsley, peppermint, raspberry leaf, red clover, rose hips, sage yarrow, and yellow dock.
Thioallyl compounds: (Antioxidant activity) Found in onions and garlic. Thioallyl compounds, flavonoids and phytoestrogens are hypocholesterolaemic and antithrombotic. Thioallyl together with Catechins and gingerolo (in ginger) have antiinflammatory activity.
Threonine: (EAA) It can convert to glycine, serine, & glucose in the central nervous system. Threonine can make body protein structures & participates in the storage of glucose in your liver. Severe deficiency of threonine causes neurologic dysfunction & lameness in experimental animals. Antidepressant. Important in formation of collagen and elastin, lipotropic function with aspartic acid and methionine in liver, available in first class proteins, non-fat dried milk, pork, fried liver, skim milk, soya flour, Parmesan Cheese, baked flounder, trout (Raw), tuna, canned in oil drained, Edam Cheese, chicken breasts, poultry turkey, roasted pork, sirloin steak, liver (cooked), beef (roast), fried calf liver, mackerel. Low in grains. But combination of pulses and grain is complete source for vegetarians.
Tryptophan: (EAA) Is the forerunner together with vitamin B6 of serotonin – a calming neurotransmitter. See here .Also required in the conversion to picolinic acid (picolinate) for absorption of zinc and chromium. Turkey, fried liver, soya flour, pumpkin seeds, apricot, beet greens, bananas, brown rice, Brussels sprout, tomatoes,potatoes, Swiss chard. skim milk, eggs, kale, mango, mustard green, papaya, Parmesan Cheese, cottage cheese, cashews, dried dates, Edam Cheese, walnuts, peanuts (*roasted), peanut butter, lentils, Cheddar cheese, sesame seeds, flounder baked, fish, beef, liver (cooked), tuna canned in oil drained, salmon, chicken liver, roast pork and meat. Poor tryptophan sources: rye, corn buckwheat. Take half a gram of chlorella or other green or blue algae product at bedtime as a source of tryptophan to induce sleep (via serotonin production). Alternatively, take two tablespoons of non-fat milk powder and mix with water with perhaps vitamin B6 with some starch (in potato or pasta). This could possibly overcome sugar cravings and other addictions.”Bananas, beets, blue-green algae, brown rice, fennel, figs, legumes, nuts, pineapple, potatoes, radishes, spinach, tomatoes, and whole grains would be your best vegetarian choices.” for serotonin production.
Turmeric: dried rhizome of Curcuma longa (Ginger family) grown in India and South Asia. It is deep yellow and used both as a condiment and herbal remedy as an antioxidant, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer (prostate, melanoma), liver detoxifier, possible prevention of Alzheimer’s disease by removing amyloid plaque, may slow down multiple sclerosis, pain killer (cox-2 inhibitor), in China used to treat depression, arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis. Is available in pill form (250-500mg capsules). See Mercola video. Dr Steven V. Joyal video. Turmeric (Curcuma longa syn. C. domestica) is used for various skin conditions such as: ulcers, itching, eczema psoriasis, diaper rash, herpes, wounds, snakebite, insect stings and ringworm. For more information see Herbs2000.
Tyramine: (to be avoided by those taking MAO inhibitors for depression) (migraine headaches); Tyrosinea tyramine precursor; almonds, avocado, chocolate, figs, bananas, beef or chicken liver, beer, cheese including cottage cheese, aged cheese, coffee, meat tenderizer, peanuts, pickles, pineapple, pumpkin seeds, raisins, aged game, liver, canned meat, salami, sausage, salted dried fish, pickled herring, sesame seeds, Italian broad beans, green bean pods, eggplant, yeast products (ie., Marmite), Brewer’s yeast, any products which involves fermentation, alcoholic beverages, yoghurtTyrosine: Derived from phenylalanine. It is also the precursor for the synthesis of melanin (skin and hair pigments) and adrenaline and nor adrenaline. Found in almonds, avocados, bananas, dairy products, yoghurt, eggs, cereals, nuts, lima beans, pumpkin seeds, sesame seeds. Pure form the best way taken with carbohydrate meal to avoid competition with other amino acids. Avoid when taking MAO inhibitors as it could raise blood pressure.
Ubiquinone: –> CoEnzyme Q10
Uric acid: End product of purine metabolism. Excess causes crystallization in joints leading to gout. High in sweetbread (pancreas), fish roe, sardines, anchovies, lesser amounts in other fish and meat, little in vegetables, fruits and cereals.
Valine: (EAA)(Needed for muscle energy source & metabolism, tissue repair, nitrogen balance) Constituent of BCAA. Brewer’s Yeast (GTF), Parmesan cheese, Pork, fried liver, Parmesan Cheese, Milk, dried skimmed, Gelatin, Soya flour, Edam cheese, Soya flour, full fat, Edam Cheese 30% fat, Gouda cheese 45% fat, Peas, seed, dry, Cheddar cheese, Soya beans, soybeans, Cowpeas, dry, Wheat Germ, Wheatgerm, Cheddar cheese, White Beans, Camembert cheese, Caviar, Flounder (baked), Pumpkin seeds, Chicken liver, Tuna, canned in oil drained, Trout (raw), Cashews (nuts), Peanuts (roasted), Peanut butter, Cashews, Beef, liver, Mungo beans, Black gram, Blue Cheese, Peanuts, Peanuts, roasted, Lima Beans, dry, Pig’s liver, Pork liver, Sardines, Pork muscles only, Tuna, flesh, Brie Cheese, Beef, sirloin steak, Pork chops, Salmon, flesh, Liver,calf , Pistachios, Chicken Breasts, Beef rump, Halibut, Sardines in oil, Sunflower seeds, Tuna in oil, Liver (cooked), Trout, Mullet, Egg yolk, Egg Yolks, Pork, Hind leg, Perch, river, Sheep’s liver, Herring, Mackerel, Sirloin steak, Calf liver (fried), Eel, poultry, turkey, Mutton, Chicken for roasting, Salmon, canned, Horse mackerel, Lemon sole, Beef (roast), Haddock, raw, Kidneys, beef, Almonds, Almonds, roasted (nut), Egg, Whole egg,
Vanadium: (Potentiator of insulin) The best food sources include Buckwheat, Parsley, Radishes, Soya beans, Egg Yolks, Safflower Oil, Sunflower Seed Oil, refined, Egg White, Oats,without husk, whole grain, Olive Oil, black pepper, Cod, Sunflower Seeds, Corn, French beans, String Beans, Dill Weed, Dill Pickles, Green Beans, Oysters, Peanut Oil, Cabbage, Carrots, Garlic, cloves, Avocados, Tomatoes, ripe, Bananas, Onions, Beets, Lobster, Crawfish, Apples, Pears; however, processing (e.g. dried milk powder, canned apple juice) increases vanadium levels . Middle range: whole grains, parsley, fish, meats (liver) and dairy products, soybean-,corn-,olive-oil, gelatin, mushrooms, soybean, snap beans. Toxicity: Vanadium is generally more toxic when inhaled than when taken orally. Toxicity may lead to manic-depressive illness. Tobacco use decreases the uptake of vanadium.
Vasoactive amines: (responsible for changing size of blood vessels which may lead to migraines, tyramine: aged cheese, chicken liver, pickled herring, dry fermented sausage, sour cream, red wine (especially Chianti); Phenylethylamine: cheese, chocolate. See also, nitrites, lactose, caffeine, copper, aspartame, See also Dr Fluhrer
Vitamin A: Made in the body from -> beta-carotene see carotenoids. Liver, eggs, egg yolk, yellow fruits and vegetables, spinach, dark-green fruits and vegetables, rhubarb, whole milk products, fish-liver oil*, in fishoils such as cod, salmon and halibut.
Vitamin A: Vitamin A is a generic term for a large number of related compounds. Retinol (an alcohol) and retinal (an aldehyde) are often referred to as preformed vitamin A. Retinal can be converted by the body to retinoic acid, the form of vitamin A known to affect gene transcription. Retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, and related compounds are known as retinoids. Beta-carotene and other carotenoids that can be converted by the body into retinol are referred to as provitamin A carotenoids. Hundreds of different carotenoids are synthesized by plants, but only about 10% of them are provitamin A carotenoids. Inadequate retinol available to the retina of the eye results in impaired dark adaptation (night blindness).Vitamin A plays a role in Gene expression, in immunity, growth development, red blood cell production, cancer, ling cancer, breast cancer. RDA adults 700 IU/day, pregnancy 750 IU/day, breast feeding 1,200 – 1,300 Iu/ day. Free retinol is not generally found in foods. Retinyl palmitate, a precursor of retinol is found in foods from animals. Plants contain carotenoids. Sources: Cod Liver Oil, Fortified breakfast cereals, eggs, butter, whole milk, 2% fat milk (Vit A added). Sweet potato, carrots raw, canatloupe (melon), mango, spinach, Broccoli, Kale, Collards, Squash For more information see Linus Pauling Institute
Vitamin B-complex: Yeasts, Brewer’s Yeast, egg yolk, legumes, blackstrap molasses, dried Lima beans, raisins, cantaloupe (rockmelon), liver, beef, organ meats, cheese, pork, kidney,whole grains, nuts.
Vitamin B1: (Thiamine:), Most vegetables, Brewer’s Yeast, dried yeast, whole grains, blackstrap molasses, bran, brown rice, organ meats, meats (pork or liver), fish poultry, egg yolk, legumes, milk, peanuts, rice polish, sunflower seeds, potatoes and nuts, wheat germ, whole wheat. Enemies: Cooking, caffeine, alcohol, food-processing methods, air, water, oestrogen, sulphur drugs.
Vitamin B2: (Riboflavin:),Together with Vitamin B1, Vitamin B2 is essential for release of energy from carbohydrates, required for hormones formation, formation of red blood cells, involved in neurotransmitters metabolism, may reduce depression, adjunct in iron supplementation in treatment of anemia, possible prevention of prostate cancer. Deficiency symptoms: burning of lips, mouth tongue, itching of eyes, loss of vision, sensitivity to light, eyes redden, prenatal deficiency might lead to retarded growth or malformation. These symptoms also occur with deficiency of niacin, iron, vitamin B6. Vitamin B2 found in Brewer’s yeast, whole grains, almonds, blackstrap molasses, organ meats, egg yolks, legumes, nuts. see also bioflavonoids, wheat germ, rice polish, sunflower seeds.
Vitamin B3: (niacin:), Its deficiency can lead to Pellagra. A corn diet is low in niacin AND tryptophan (source) . Also known as nicotinic acid (old name), nicotinamide, niacinamide(Niacin is converted to nicotinamide in the body and incorporated into NAD (Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide NADH) an important coenzyme in cellular respiration as in conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-Coa). Niacin in the form of nicotinic acid is used therapeutically for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Daily doses of 3-6 g can result in significant reductions in levels of LDL and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and in elevation of HDL. Niacinamide does not exhibit the lipid lowering effects of nicotinic acid. Symptoms of niacin deficiency (pellagra): anorexia, weakness, irritability, mouth soreness, glossitis, stomatitis, weight loss, more severe; dermatitis, diarrhea and dementia. Stephen J McPhee et als (2007) See also further studies PMID. Sources: Lean meats, poultry, fish, Torula yeast, Brewer’s Yeast, peanuts with skin, milk and milk products, avocado, baked beans, broccoli, clams, liver, mushrooms, oysters, potatoes, raspberries, rice bran, wheat bran, strawberries, turkey, watermelon, rice bran, desiccated liver*, vegemite. Supplements available in niacinamide, nicotinamide. Niacin also produced from tryptophan, (60mg tryptophna to 1 mg niacin), hence supplementation of niacin may reduce depression. Niacin can cause harmless flushing; an alternative is inositol hexaniacinate. (Head, Kathleen A (2000)., ND Inositol Hexaniacinate: A Safer Alternative to Niacin, #201, p.88-92).
Vitamin B5: (Pantothenic Acid, Panthenol). Helps in cell building, development of central nervous system, vital in adrenal gland functions, essential in conversion of fats and sugars into energy, utilisation of PABA and choline, can be synthesized from bacteria in intestines. Essential in conversion of phosphatidyl choline to acetylcholine (a calming agent) in manic phase of bipolar disorder. May reduce pain in arthritis (1000 mg daily) and against a foreseen stress situation. Deficiency: hypoglycemia, duodenal ulcers, skin disorders. Sources: Meat, whole grains, wheat germ, bran, kidney, liver, heart, green vegetables, brewer’s yeast, nuts, chicken, crude molasses. Dose between 10-300 mg, no known toxicity, Enemies: Heat, food processing, caffeine, sulphur drugs, sleeping pills, oestrogen, alcohol.
Vitamin B6: (Pyridoxine:) Helps convert tryptophan in mood lifting sorotonin in the brain. Vitamin B6 is converted to pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P5P) by a zinc dependent enzyme Pyridoxal Kinase into its active form and used in many enzymatic reactions to form neurotransmitters. Lack of dream recall is often a sign of vitamin B6 deficiency. (Ebben M at als. 2002) y. It may also be caused by a Riboflavin deficiency. Sources: Brewer’s Yeast (GTF), Yeast, Torula, Sunflower Seeds, Lobster, Crawfish, Wheat Germ, toasted, Soya beans, Salmon, flesh, Sardines, Oats,without husk, whole grain, Walnuts, Liver,beef, Soybeans, dried, Chicken liver, Okra, (Gumbo), Wheat Bran, Beef, liver, Trout,flesh, Mackerel,flesh, Pork liver, Mackerel, Soybean Flour, Lentils,dry, Pork liver, Buckwheat flour, Pork muscle only, Barley,without husk, Blackeye Peas, dry, Pork chops, Chick-peas, dry, Brown Rice, Garbanzos, Chicken Breasts, Avocados, Pinto Beans, dry, Millet, Soya flour, full fat, Calf’s kidney, Plantain, Chicken for roasting, Wheat Germ, Lima Beans, dry Malt extract, Flour (refined desiccated liver*, don’t take more than 100 mg of B6. Very low in cottage cheese. Vitamin B6 may reduce depression as it is a coenzyme in the conversion of tryptophan to serotonin.
Vitamin B9 see Folic acid
Vitamin B12: (Cobalamin:), important in the metabolism of homocysteine high levels of which contributes to heart disease see: Betaine & folic acid: and required in the synthesis of SAM-e, an important anti-depresant nutrient. B12 needs to be combined with Intrinsic Factor from stomach lining for its absorption in the gut. See Image. FOUND IN: organ meats, liver (lamb), fish, clams, pork, pig liver, pig kidney, fatty fish, beef, lamb, white fish, oysters, sardines, salmon, Tuna, eggs (yolk), chicken liver, cheeses, milk and milk products. (Spirulina, or and other sea vegetables, tofu and other soy products, fermented or otherwise, pasteurized or not pasteurized, grains, yeast, cereals are NOT good sources according to Hendler (1990, 65)). Some reports show that Nori and Chlorella seaweed may provide biologically active B12, but vegans consuming these foods still had below normal levels of B12. See notes.
Vitamin B13: (Orotic Acid): Metabolizes folic acid and B12. Root vegetables, liquid whey, liquid portion of soured or curdled milk.
Vitamin C: (Ascorbic acid, ascorbate): Citrus fruits, Kiwi Fruit, rose hips, Acerola cherries, alfalfa seeds, alfalfa sprouts, cantaloupe (Rock Melon) strawberries, broccoli, cabbage, tomatoes, green peppers, capsicum, parsley, Brussels sprout, kale, mustard greens, paw paw, spinach, cauliflower, oranges, mangoes, grapefruit, pineapple, radishes, onions, green peas, spinach, sweet peppers. Herbs: alfalfa, burdock root, cayenne, chickweed, eye bright, fennel seed, fenugreek, hops, Horsetail, kelp, peppermint, mullein, nettle, oat straw, paprika, parsley, pine needle, plantain, raspberry leaf, red clover, rose hips, skullcap violet ;leaves,yarrow, yellow dock. Esterified vitamin C (Ester-C) is an effective form of vitamin C supplementation.
Vitamin D: Major source the SUN, Absorption of calcium and phosphorus by intestinal tract, heart beat, osteoporosis. Boron helps to convert vitamin D to active form of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. This absolutely essential in bone formation. Salmon, sardines, herrings, liver, vitamin D-fortified milk and milk products, egg yolks, organ meats, Cod Liver Oils* Bone-meal*, also produced in skin from sunlight, mushrooms, Dandelion greens, alfalfa, Horsetail, nettle, parsley. Do not take vitamin D without calcium. Toxicity: >25,000 IUs over extended period. Supplementation rarely needed in sunny Australia. See also: SAD
Vitamin E: (Tocopherol): The body needs zinc to maintain proper vitamin E levels. Vitamin E and vitamin C work synergistically in the body. There are several compounds of tocopherols: Alpha-, beta-, delta- and Gamma-tocopherols. The mixed form is T-tocopherols. Richest in wheat germ oil, avocado, spinach, mustard greens, green and red peppers, Almonds, Brazil nuts, cold-pressed oils, cornmeal, Dulse, eggs, legumes, nuts, brown rice, oatmeal, organ meats, sunflower seeds (& oil), safflower oil, sesame oil, peanut oil, corn oil, hazelnuts, olive oil, organ meats, molasses, nuts, soybean oil, sweet potatoes, leafy vegetables, watercress, wholegrains, kelp, milk, desiccated liver* (See NHS205.21) Herbs: alfalfa, bladder wrack, dandelion, dong quai, flaxseed, nettle, oat straw, raspberry leaf, rose hip.
Vitamin K: Vitamin K1, or phylloquinone, is found naturally in plants. Vitamin K2, also called menaquinone, is made by the bacteria that line the gastrointestinal tract. Vitamin K1 is converted into K2 in the intestine, but we get some amount of K2 in meat, liver and egg yolk, and fermented products such as yogurt and cheese. And these sources reveal the basic difference between K1 and K2; K1 comes from plant sources, and K2 from animal sources. : (Vitamin K – essential for production of bones and of prothrombin in blood clotting, bone formation, hepatitis C – is manufactured in the intestines by bacteria, hence antibiotics interfere with this process). One study showed that the supplementation of vitamin K2, menaquinone, (5 -15 mg per day) reduces in the incidence of liver cancer in people with viral cirrhosis and cancer of the prostate gland (Nimptsch et als (2008), (Nimptsch et als. 2010) and here. See also: Vitamin K2 against prostate cancer and many other degenerative diseases . It also reduces bone loss in osteoporosis. Inadequate levels of vitamin K may reduce the activity of the matrix GLA protein (MGP), which in turn has been identified as a key player in the development of varicosis. Since vitamin K is required to activate MGP, it is believed that adequate dietary intake of vitamin K is a prerequisite for the prevention of varicose veins. J Vasc Res 2007;44:444-459 Source: fermented foods such as Natto, Leafy green vegetables, collard greens, spinach, alfalfa, kale, egg yolks, safflower oils, asparagus, lettuce, blackstrap molasses, cauliflower, soybeans, beef liver, cabbage, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, green peas, green tea, oatmeal, oats, rye, safflower oil, spinach, soya beans, soya bean oil, tomatoes, strawberries, fish liver oils, wheat, yoghurt and cheese. Herbs: alfalfa, green tea, kelp, nettle, oat straw, shepherd’s purse: Enemies: X-rays and radiation, frozen foods, aspirin, air pollution, mineral oils. Don’t take synthetic vitamin K during the last few weeks of pregnancy as it may cause toxicity in the newborn.
Xanthophylls: A phytochemical composed of zeaxanthin and lutein, a powerful antioxidant that has the unique characteristic of being able to cross the blood brain barrier more easily than most other antioxidants, and is especially protective agains the formation of age-related cataracts. Found in: corn, kiwi, red seedless grapes, orange-colored peppers, spinach, celery, Brussels sprouts, scallions, broccoli, and squash
Xylitol: A five-carbon sugar alcohol found in rasberry, endive, lettuce and formed in the body as an intermediary in glucose metabolism, 80-100% as sweet as sucrose. Because bacteria cannot feed on five-carbon sugars it cannot cause dental caries, even counteract it. Thus is is known as a tooth-friendly sugar. It is also very helpful in hypoglycemia as it does not trigger insulin peaks, and is metabolized into glucose in the liver.
Zeaxanthin: (See also lutein) One of the carotenoids pigments, potent antioxidant especially protective effect in Macular Degeneration of the retina because of destructive aspect of light, found in maize, egg yolk (the deeper the yellow of the egg the more it contains lutein and zeaxanthin) and Cape gooseberry (Physalis)
NOTES for Vitamin B12
References: Davidson MH, Maki KC, Synecki C et al (1998), Effects of dietary inulin on serum lipids in men and women with hypercholesterolaemia, Nutr Res 18(3): 503-517 Fleisher MA, Mercury detoxification, Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients, 241, May, 64-71 (2001) Salazar MR, Alpha lipoic acid: a novel treatment for Depression, Med Hypotheses 55(6): 510-2, (2000) Med Hypotheses